Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Shiaa

The Iraqi Christian Isabella Benyameen wrote: Only the Shiaa welcomed us when we fled

In all Sunni towns, cities, and provinces in Iraq heaped on us excuses in order to keep us moving away: They either raped us or claimed that they fear the wrath of ISIS…

I thus conclude: the only Muslims nowadays are the Shiaa

وجدنا عند (( الشيعة )) فقط دين اسمه الاسلام !!

هجمت علينا داعش في الموصل فكتبوا على بيوتنا حرف (ن) …
يعني نصراني والأكراد ادلائهم…

ثم خيرونا بين الجزية او الاسلام او السيف …
فهرب من هرب منا بجلده …
تركنا الغالي والنفيس …
بلا ذنبٍ جنيناه مع اننا سكان هذه المناطق منذ اكثر من 3 آلاف سنة ..
وبنينا حضارة لا يزال صداها إلى هذا اليوم (الحضارة الاشورية)..

هدمت معاولهم كل تراثنا …
ومحت كل آثارنا …
وباعوا نساءنا في سوق النخاسة بأبخس الاثمان ….

( البابا ) سكت وصمت وهفت وخفت ….
(الغرب المنافق) نطق على استحياء ….
ليُنقذ ما تبقى من حياء وهل للعاهرة حياء ….
(اوروبا المخادعة) فتحت ابوابها لتُفرغ العراق من مسيحييه …
لأنهم يعرفون ان التقسيم آت…
وتذرعوا بانقاذنا ولكنهم باعونا ووقفوا على انقاضنا ….

ولكن عجبي الذي لا يزول كيف يثق العربي والمسلم بهؤلاء ..
اقولها من دون خوف او وجل هؤلاء صنائع الغرب اليهودي …
هو الذي اجلسهم على الكراسي …
وهم يعرفون انهم في يوم سيُعلقونهم على المشانق …
(عشرة مليارات) خلال سنة واحدة اشترت السعودية ودول الخليج..
اسلحة من الغرب، ماذا تفعل بها ؟
ولمن تريدها هل تحمي نفسها بهذه الاسلحة ….
لو غضب اليهود عليهم او زعلت امريكا ….
وقررت استبدالهم وانزالهم عن عروشهم ؟

الم يتعظوا بالقذافي او بن علي . او علي صالح ، او صدام …
او حسني مبارك الذي صرخ في المحكمة :
(لقد خذلونا وتركونا)………

يقولون لي لماذا تميلين للشيعة وتنصريهم في مقالاتك ؟؟
طبعا اقول لهم ان مقالاتي لا تُمجد احد …
ولكنها تُمجد الحقيقة التي لا تعجبكم ….

واقول لكم:
عندما تعرضنا للمحنة بالموصل ….
ولجأنا إلى (الاكراد) اغتصبوا نساءنا وسرقوا ما تبقى من اموالنا …
وكانوا يضعون علامة (ن) على بيوتنا…
وعندما لجأنا إلى (السنة بالرمادي وتكريت وغيرها) طردونا …
وقالوا نحن لا نتحمل زعل جيش الدولة الاسلامي ولا غضب الثوار …
طبعا لا يطلقون عليهم ( داعش ) ….

فلجأنا إلى (( الشيعة ))….
ونحن خائفون منهم لما كنا نسمعه هنا وهناك….
فوجدنا أن هناك ( دينا اسمه الاسلام ) لا يزال يزهوا بهؤلاء …
ويُحافظ على قيم وتقاليد لم نجدها في اي مكان آخر …
وعندهم (مراجع كانهم انبياء) يجلسون في محاريبهم ….
بسطاء متواضعون حب الناس عندهم فرض ….
وجلوسهم على الأرض ….
فتحوا لنا بيوتهم ….
ولما لم تكفي فتحوا لنا المدارس …
ولما ضاقت بنا فتحوا لنا الحسينيات على طول /
طريق ديوانية نجف، نجف كربلاء، بابل كربلاء …
والسيارات تتخاطف علينا لتوزع علينا الماء والطعام والكهرباء …
كل (عشيرة) تبرعت بحماية من يُقيمون على ارضهم …
إلى ان (غادرنا الوطن) فعرفنا ان الدنيا لا زالت بخير على ايدي هؤلاء..

المقال لكاتبة مسيحية عراقية/ (إيزابيلا بنيامين)
(كلمة الحق تقال ولن نخشى لومة لائم أنثى متذمر)

 

Iraq’s problems are not timeless. The U.S. is responsible.

With the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS,  faction of Al Qaeda) taking over cities in Iraq one by one, Rosen’s words have proven true. Though, as it turns out, it is the Sunnis going to war against the Shias in power this time around.

(The minority Sunni dictator Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq for 3 decades until the US forces displaced him and succumbed to the Iraqi morass for 8 long years, as long as the Iraqi-Iranian war lasted 2 decades ago).

And, while the Sunnis have not quite been “cleansed” from Baghdad, the Shia/Sunni conflict has been unrelenting, and Nouri al-Maliki’s sectarian policies seem to have prompted the most recent rounds of violence. (Even the Kurds are taking advantage of the conflict to secure land.)

How was Rosen able to make such a prescient statement? While critics blame Obama’s policies for the deteriorating situation, Rosen agrees with Nancy Pelosi, who said the current crisis “represents the failed policies that took us down this path 10 years ago.”

Rosen, who was an independent, unembedded reporter in Iraq on and off for two years, writes:

When Baghdad fell, on April 9, 2003, and widespread violence erupted, the primary victims were Iraq’s Sunnis. For Shias, this was justice. “It is the beginning of the separation,” one Shia cleric told me with a smile in the spring of 2003.

Saddam had used Sunni Islam to legitimize his power, building one large Sunni mosque in each Shia city in the south; these mosques were seized by Shias immediately after the regime collapsed. . . .

Some realignment of power was inevitable after Saddam’s removal, and perhaps not even shared opposition to the American occupation could have united Sunnis and Shias. As it happened, the occupation divided Iraqis between those seen as anti-occupation and those seen as pro-occupation.

For Rosen, the seeds of this conflict were planted from the beginning, and “enshrined” by United States’s attempt to democratize Iraq, as sectarian parties failed to win seats:

The American sectarian approach has created the civil war [in Iraq]. We saw Iraqis as Sunnis, Shias, Kurds. We designed a governing council based on a sectarian quota system and ignored Iraqis (not exiled politicians but real Iraqis) who warned us against it.

We decided that the Sunnis were the bad guys and the Shias were the good guys. These problems were not timeless. In many ways they are new, and we are responsible for them. The tens of thousands of cleansed Iraqis, the relatives of those killed by the death squads, the sectarian supporters and militias firmly ensconced in the government and its ministries, the Shia refusal to relinquish their long-awaited control over Iraq, the Kurdish commitment to secession, the Sunni harboring of Salafi jihadists—all militate against anything but full-scale civil war.

Indeed, in 2003, Juan Cole pointed to the U.S. preference for Shias:

In removing the Baath regime and eliminating constraints on Iraqi Islamism, the United States has unleashed a new political force in the Gulf: not the upsurge of civic organization and democratic sentiment fantasized by American neoconservatives, but the aspirations of Iraqi Shiites to build an Islamic republic.

But in the next breath, he makes it clear how unlikely it was that the Shias could remain in control:

To be sure, the dreams of a Shiite Islamic republic in Baghdad may be unrealistic: a plurality of the country is Sunni (wrong data, the Shiaa are the majority, now and then), and some proportion of the 14 million Shiites is secularist.

And even before the United States entered Iraq, John W. Dower, reflecting on the experience of postwar Japan, told us not “expect democracy in Iraq”: “Put simply, one of the reasons the reformist agenda succeeded is that Japan was spared the type of fierce tribal, religious, and political factionalism that exists in countries like Iraq today.” He writes:

I have no doubt that huge numbers of Iraqis would welcome the end of repression and establishment of a democratic society, but any number of considerations make the situation there very different than it was in Japan.

Apart from lacking the moral legitimacy and internal and global support that buttressed its occupation of Japan, the United States is not in the business of nation-building any more—just look at Afghanistan. And we certainly are not in the business of promoting radical democratic reform. Even liberal ideals are anathema in the conservative circles that shape U.S. policy today.

The central tensions in Iraq, sadly, seem nowhere close to being solved. It is just as true now as it was in 2006 when Rosen was writing, and in 2003 when we entered Iraq, that:

The once confident and aggressive Sunnis now see the state as their enemy. They are very afraid. All Iraqis are.

Photograph: James Gordon

Who Assassinated Lebanon’s late Rafic Hariri PM? (May 26, 2009)

 

The German daily Der Spiegel reported excerpts from internet blogs posted by Syrian dissidents six months ago claiming that a special team of Hezbollah masterminded the assassination of late Lebanon Rafic Hariri PM.  The timing of that report, which the International Tribunal denied any knowledge, was evidence that the real perpetrators were scared shit of the victory of the opposition in Lebanon at the next Parliamentary election on June 7.  It meant that the opposition is not about to let the assassination case linger any longer and will pursue its own investigation or force the International Tribunal to move swiftly and close the doors to further political manipulations of that case. What exacerbated the political climate is that Lebanon has started dismantling systematically Israel’s spy webs and dangerous intelligence are accumulating relative to Israel involvement in many of the string of assassination cases in Lebanon since the murder of Rafic Hariri.in 2005.  The US Vice President Biden visited Lebanon for 6 hours before the publishing of the report and met with the leaders of the government alliances.  Lebanon has to expect the worst every time a US official pay us visit to give us orders.

Thanks to Walid Jumblat, one of the principal allies to the government, he quickly and adamantly lambasted this chimerical and fabricated report and proclaimed that the report was intended to draw Lebanon into another civil war between the Shiaa and the Sunni Moslem sects.  Saad Hariri (leader of the Future movement) and Seniora PM were forced into suspect silence; proof that they were aware of the plan that backfired on them, a plan that is backed by Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, and the USA.

Seymour Hirsh has pronounced that former Vice President Cheney had formed a secret cell with purposes to assassinate a few leaders, including Rafic Hariri.  Hassan Nasr Allah, Secretary General of Hezbollah, delivered a speech on May 25 warning the Lebanese of the seriousness of the planning to resume machinations for instigating civil war in Lebanon.  Sayyed Hassan recounted the well planned dissemination process of the report.  Al Arabiya news media started drawing comments on the report but the feedback was lukewarm and the session fell flat.  Then, Israel’s dailies picked up the report on their front pages and the Israeli Foreign Affairs and Defense ministers urged that Nasr Allah be apprehended and delivered to the International Tribunal.

This report is timed before Israel’s all out military maneuver on May 31 and lasting 5 days.  This is to be the largest and most exhaustive maneuver ever in the 61 years of the creation of the Zionist State; it should involve all Israel civil and military institutions and cover all the land.

 

On March 7, 2005 I wrote an article with the same title “Who assassinated Rafic Hariri?”  The subsequent chapter is a copy of the article.

 

“Since the assassination of former Prime Minister Hariri, thousands of citizens have been gathering, every day and night, in Downtown Beirut demanding to know who assassinated Hariri.  Not many believe that the government has enough credibility to investigate properly this political crime.  The UN has sent a team headed by a former Irish police officer and then later, the Lebanese government asked the help of several criminal experts and investigators from Switzerland and Denmark.

So far, how the blast occurred and what kind of explosive was used is still not conclusive and pretty much vague and divergent.  The government is claiming that it was a suicide car bombing done by Abu Abbass who sent a video to Al Jazira channel, one hour after the incident, claiming the responsibility of an unknown group. The government hinted that it analyzed genetically remnants of the perpetrator.  A political scientist, Dr. Nakash, believes that the video is real and that two similar simple terrorist techniques were successfully used in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Dr. Nakash produces documents published in the New York Times of many serious threats to King Fahd, owner of Al Arabiya channel and the main mentor of Hariri.  Apparently, Al Arabiya was muting news on Iraq that could damage the US presence there. Thus, Saudi Arabia bribed Alawi (Iraq’s prime minister) with two billion dollars to shut down the offices of Al Jazira channel and to crack down on the militia of Al Sadr in Najjaf.   Alawi executed the order effectively.  Hariri was for some time following the political premises of Saudi Arabia in Iraq but had a change of position lately: It was too late.

The Hariri’s deputies in the Parliament affirm that the detonating charge was planted underground and the material is so new that the labs have failed to determine its composition until now.  One of the surviving bodyguard claims that the street was clear and no visible obstructions was evident before the blast.

May be the people want to know but the powers to be, locally, regionally and internationally are not that excited to divulge the parties behind this barbaric crime. The rhetoric of President Bush, Chirac, and the European Union has already pointed the finger to Syria: an indication that any investigation is decided to be politically motivated. 

It is hardly credible that any Lebanese political party is behind this assassination.

It seems that Syria has much to lose from the death of Hariri because of his wide range of connections and the many favors he enjoys with Saudi Arabia, the main financial backer of Syria and his stabilizing power within the Lebanese political system.

 

I am leaning toward an Israeli/US connection for several reasons:

1) The next day to the assassination, Sharon dismissed or refused to extend the appointment of Yaalon as head of the army and appointed the head of Israel secret services to replace him. Was Yaalon against this assassination decision or was he not informed and expressed his position accordingly?

 

2)  Hariri failed many Israeli attempts to internationally cast Hezbollah as a terrorist organization and he succeeded in Europe and in France.

 

3)  Hariri was behind snubbing Israel for the failed May 17, 1983 peace treaty agreement with Lebanon.

 

4)  Hariri was behind the April understandings in 1997 with the direct involvement of the USA on the procedures of conducting war between Hezbollah and Israel.  This agreement seriously hampered Israel in waging its devastating traditional attacks on civilians’ targets in south Lebanon and carrying out mass detentions.

 

5)  Hariri had reversed his position on the issue of the return of the Palestinian refugees to Palestine and could certainly block any UN resolution to the contrary.  For many years Hariri on purpose heavily indebted the State of Lebanon; the plan was that the Lebanese would cow and accept the residency of the Palestinians in return of the cancellation of the international debt.  The pragmatic Hariri comprehended that his former plan was not feasible and agreed to reverse the indebtedness program.

 

6)  The timing of the assassination was appropriate because Israel was under pressures to negotiate with Abu Abbass (The recently elected Palestinian prime minister).  Israel wanted a free hand to pressure Abu Abbass into a flexible understanding about the refugees’ problems and Hariri could very well exercise effective counter attacks when he returned as prime minister after the April election.

 

7)  Israel has a history of eliminating every enemy to its plans for expansion and the timing was perfect because first, Hariri was no longer a prime minister; second, the political discourse within Lebanon was very heated for blaming Syria of the many current setbacks, especially for generating the UN resolution 1559.  The unfounded rumors that Hariri was behind this resolution could divert the guilt for the assassination to Syria for an extended period of time.

 

8)  Since Israel never makes such serious decisions before receiving the green light from Washington, it is obvious that the USA government has an interest in eliminating Hariri at this junction.  Hariri was to be reelected in April and be appointed prime minister again.  With this international heavy weight and with his personal friendship with President Chirac of France it would be very difficult for the US to pass a resolution in the UN council to attack Syria in due time, especially after the State of Palestine is recognized internationally.

As newspapers in Israel rightly analyzed the situation, Syria is very probably not directly the guilty party in the crime, but Syria is certainly the party to pay the price and the consequences.  Bashar Assad, President of Syria, gave Israel the proper ammunition and the excellent timing for his inexperience and his hubris responses to international pressures.   I am certain that it is the Lebanese citizens who are and will pay the price for years to come.”

 

This is going to be a lengthy article. On March 31, 2005, I wrote another article on the same subject entitled “Okay, let us Cut Out the Crap, Who Killed Rafic Hariri?”

 

“If anyone is still waiting for the results of any kind of investigation into the assassination of Hariri, I suggest that he build himself a shack in Downtown Beirut and wait there for at least twenty years. If anyone did not get it that more than two great States are behind this assassination he better not stock up on Lebanese flags hoping for another big demonstration with the slogan of “We need the truth. Who killed our martyr Rafic?” 

If anyone is still wondering why a thousand kilograms of TNT explosives are needed to assassinate Hariri, or who can stock pile that amount of explosives, or how Hariri was killed by a moving truck, or a suicide bomber, or the detonation technique used or any kind of these stupid details he sure will no more hear any of that crap anymore.

Why Yasser Arafat, the symbol of the Palestinian resistance to Zionism, had to be assassinated, in the meanest possible alternatives, by slow poisoning when even the meanest British allowed Napoleon to dictate his memoirs before dying his slow death with arsenic poisoning?  Why Hariri had to be done with in pomp and in grandeur that left dozen killed, a hundred injured and part of Beirut destroyed?

Are the assassins sending an honorable farewell to the overbearing friend, the worthy enemy, the great leader who was much bigger than his tiny country?  Apparently the Western Powers have set up a style coding system for eliminating leaders whose time had come and are becoming huge liabilities.  I would hypothesize that the number of times the unfortunate bugger was invited officially to visit the leaders of the Western Powers and the frequency of friendship expressions are main factors for this pomp in the assassination; perhaps secondary factors such as the quality and number of citizenships he accumulated in the Western World and less probably the number of honorable degrees which were bestowed on him by universities.  

Hariri died on Valentine day.  What was his wife Nazek doing in Paris on that day?  Was she expecting Rafic to join her in Paris or was she to return that evening to Beirut, or was she held in Paris on purpose so that she might not be a member of the deadly motorcade?  Why Hariri was so happy in the morning of his death?  Did he receive the good news from Chirac that Syria will be soon be withdrawing its troops but failed to warn him that his hours were counted?

Does anyone still believe that Chirac, a President of a proud country, stayed more than six hours with the Hariri’s family to mourn such a great friend of his?  Or may be he is so guilt ridden that he had to shift attention somewhere else?  How come France was so chummy with Israel lately as if missing an old friend and cannot stop chatting and cuddling with?

How come the US Administration has been moving its butts in and out of Lebanon and shaking them much more than it did during its Iraq invasion?  How come the US Administration has been admonishing Israel to stop affirming the US agreement on its policies whether in Israel or in the Middle East?

I stated in a previous article that the USA and Israel are the culprits and provided the rationales. I stand a little corrected because I am adding a few more culprits. 

 

The 1559 UN resolution that was sponsored by the USA and France was the tip of the iceberg of the package deal between these two States and one of the little secret in the agreement was to contract out Israel to eliminate Hariri with utmost prejudice within specific constraints on when and how.  Israel was overjoyed that the opportunity finally came to erase her enemy number one off her black list.  Hariri not only attempted several times to undermine Israel plans in Lebanon and in the region but succeeded hands down in all his political counter offensives against Israel and was still capable of doing Israel great damage.

Chirac was relieved from an overbearing friend who kept reminding him of what were the right things to do toward Lebanon.  Chirac knew better that doing the right things is not necessarily the right political decisions at this crucial time.  Chirac was paying dearly from his prestige and France political positions by opposing the persistent pressures from the European Union and the USA to list Hezbollah as one of the terrorist organizations.  Hariri kept showing at the Elysee door and taking photos with Chirac that said “My dearest friend Chirac” as Egypt President Sadat used to say to Kissinger, the USA Secretary of State during Nixon, “My dear friend Henry”.

The USA and France had already agreed on plans for the Greater Middle East and time was of the essence.  These plans could not succeed for certain and on time as long as Hariri is still alive and active. France, for now, is winning big: it managed to reaffirm her protectorate rights over Syria and Lebanon like during the colonial times, secured her oil rights in Iraq and removed the American veto to selling military hardware to China.

The USA is succeeding in destabilizing Syria and weakening any resolve Syria might still have to counter the plans in the Greater Middle East.

The price for Hariri’s life was certainly worth any stupid friendship that reached the stage of no return on investment but was becoming a real liability in prestige for Chirac and France geopolitical interests. 

A practically weakening Lebanon President Emile Lahoud quickly agreed to an international investigating team without discussing the details of its composition or duration. Lebanon is going to be manhandled by the world community as President Lahoud, reluctantly, invited the wolves, through an international resolution, to come and freely investigate their own deeds and mischief. Lebanon will be welcoming an international team of investigators, about 60 of them and for 6 months automatically renewed for another 6 months. 

Citizens, what sort of political and economic stability do you expect for Lebanon in the coming year?  Another wave of immigration is taking place and no noble slogans can undo this trend.  If Syria was in cohort to this assassination plan it certainly was left to drown and take the heat alone.

“A Witness in Lebanon with Hezbollah” by Thierry Levy-Tadjine; (May 22, 2009)

The French small book “Temoin au Liban avec le Hezbollah” is of 128 pages and published by “L’ harmattan”; ISBN: 978-2-296-06619-9.  The book is of six chapters and a prologue: 1) Receiving before giving, 2) Jew in one way and pro Hezbollah, 3) My brethren the Shias, 4) Testimony of a war (2006), 5) The Lowest (God), and 6) expectancy and the dialogue.

 Thierry Levy-Thadjine is French; his grand father was Jewish and was incarcerated during the Nazi period. Thierry father was baptized Catholic and married a French Catholic woman.  Thierry married a first time with a Moroccan woman (thus Tadjine) and then studied economics and economic managements of enterprises.  By the age of 40 Thierry came to Lebanon to teach and settled since 2004 and then married a Shiaa woman from Sarafand.

Thierry guiding verses are the stories of Jesus meeting the Samaritan woman at the well and Jesus walking with the brothers Emmaus after his resurrection.  Jesus joins the two disciples to their hometown and the brothers did not recognize Jesus because he was supposed to be dead. As Jesus breaks the bread in the manner he did during the Last Supper the disciples open large eyes of recognition and Jesus disappear; the disciples believes in Jesus’ resurrection though he is absent and testify to the other disciples.  Ernst Bloch in his three volumes “The Expectation Principle” is Thierry’s theologian mentor with the definition of “God present under the sign of absence”.

Thierry blame most of the Christians who volunteer to educate the less fortunate (of other religious denominations) but never take the time to understand and listen first to their plight and their feedback.  They believe that they are much better off morally and culturally and fail to befriend the ones they had the opportunity to encounter.  Thus, by failing to receive first they fail to communicate and do proper jobs.

Thierry realized that the Moslem Shias and the Catholic Church have many similarities: first, they are both willing to interpret the verses of the Books and encourage rational interpretations that bring communities together; second, they both believe in “God present in the sign of absence”; and third, they have a structured hierarchy and the clerics study long years to become eligible for preaching and serving their communities.  The Moslem Sunnis and the Protestants are similar because they read the Books literally and have no strong and cohesive structures.

(I have written on those similarities and differences in many of my posts. In fact, on one hand the Prophet Mohammad could not withstand a centralized religious structure or intermediaries between the believers and God simply because he was a disciple of his elder cousin Warkat who was the patriarch of a “heretic” Christian sect in Mecca the “Ebionites”.  At the period, Byzantium persecuted any Christian sect that refused to obey the Byzantium brand of Catholicism. On the other hand, the prophet encouraged interpretation and the responsibility of the rational mind to learning and acquiring knowledge.  The Prophet Mohammad left no instructions on successions or organization of the Moslems after his death, though he had plenty of occasions to set down his will if he wished. Apparently, only in the last two centuries did the Shias structure their theology after the Persia Safavid Empire ruled Iran; before that, the Shias in Lebanon were the most unorganized religious sect and were constantly persecuted by the ruling Sunnis.)

Thierry refused to be evacuated by the French during the July war of 2006 and witnessed the atrocities of the war and he testified to the resistance of Hezbollah as a national resistance against the Israeli invasions and occupations of Lebanon.

How do you understand “Secular States” to mean?  (April 6, 2009)

Note: This essay applies to all States, western, orient, animists, pagans, monotheists, secular, semi-secular, democratic, theocratic and other political systems…

Charles Malek, a philosopher and Lebanon’s representative to the United Nations in its earliest 1946 sessions in San Francisco, proclaimed in the 60’s that Lebanon cannot survive as a State, unless all Lebanese convert to Christianity!

Lately, the Moslem Sunni fundamentalists proclaimed in 2006 that the State of Lebanon should be governed Caliphate-style.  The Moslem Shiaas of Hezbollah want to establish the rule of the “Wilayat al Fakeeh“, an Ayatollah who would lead by holding both the spiritual and political powers.

For example, the Christians during the civil war wanted to establish Christian cantons, exclusively for the right-wing Christian Lebanese, since they had overrun the Palestinian Christian camps in their “enclaves” and evacuated the lucky surviving Palestinians from the massacres outside the Christian cantons.

Do Christians in the Levant (Near East States) have ground to be worried? 

Islam means by “Jihad” the right to proselytize Islam everywhere and all the time.  As if the western nations have not been carrying their own brand of “Jihad” since Medieval Age to any place they wanted to colonize.

The Christians in the Levant have grounds to be apprehensive: the Christian sects have refrained from converting Moslems because conservative Islam sects command as “halal” the shedding blood of the “blasphemous” re-converted Moslems.

The Moslem Sunni salafists in north Lebanon, twice fought the Lebanese army within two years:  hundreds of soldiers died and were handicapped for life.

The Qaeda of Osama Bin Laden has the same political objective with a twist; the Qaeda wants to establish the restrictive and ultra conservative Wahhabi sect as the essence of selecting Caliphates.  The Wahhabi sect is the one adopted by the obscurantist Saudi Arabia theocratic absolute monarchy.

In 1925, the Sunni Ali Abel Razzak wrote in his book “Islam and origin of governance” that

“Islam is innocent of what the conservative Islam understands of the Caliphate.  The Caliphate was never in the religious planning, and neither were the religious judges nor any of the civil administrations in the government.  The Prophet Muhammad didn’t recognize them or order them or denied them.  The political and civil administrative issues were left to the Moslems to decide upon them.  Thus, it is proper that we engage our mind and consider the experience of nations, and the rules of politics that are the best around for our Nation.”

In Iran, Ayatollah Borojardy was detained because he wanted to separate States civil politics from religion, thus, resisting the “Fakeeh” concept of government.  In Lebanon, the Secretary General of Hezbollah, Hassan Nasr Allah, publicly harangued the Shiaa to considering “Wilayat al Fakeeh” as the official political system of his party.

Knowing that Nasr Allah speaks as a clergy in every religious ceremony, blending religion with politics with resistance to the Zionist Apartheid State, could we ever hope that the politics of Hezbollah are just short-term tactics to uniting the Shiaa against Israel?

The State of Israel would like you to believe that a mythical leader they named Moses had a revelation by a superior being named Yahweh to conquer land by the sword and genocides:  Land that was “promised” to the horde of tribes following him.  Thus, Israel would like to establish a Jewish theocratic State in Palestine.

It has been categorically proven that the Old Bible was initiated in the second century before Christ in Alexandria, and chapters were added many centuries later, and it was re-edited several times.

Hebrew, as most Arabic verbal languages bordering Syria, was a verbal slang of the Aramaic written language:  A written version was created in Alexandria as Jews flocked to Egypt around 300 BC.

If you are nowadays following Lebanon’s politics and the preparations for the election in June 7,  you might have the impression that it is the political leaders of the religious sects who are manipulating the sacerdotal castes of our 18 officially recognized religious sects.  

Don’t be fooled; ask any Lebanese and he will tell you that he is forced constitutionally to pay his first allegiance to his sect.  In fact, the sects were given the legal and official right to administer the civil status of its coreligionists from birth to death and the central government is totally helpless in interfering; even if any serious government  wishes to change the political system, it would never want problems to blow in its face…

My question to the western States’ citizens is: Do you believe that the separation of State and religion is implicitly a de facto reality?  Do you believe that religious clerics and institutions have desisted from meddling in State affairs? That during voting periods, the religious sacerdotal castes do not impress on the political climate?

Do you believe that there is no religious backlash on religious minorities in democratic States?

Isn’t religion recognized in your constitutions and in the prayers of your national ceremonies?  Are not the civil administrative posts implicitly submitted to a quota system?

I am sincerely worried about the practices of those hypocritical Secular States who force its minorities to submit to the various litmus tests, on the ground of applying civil laws and regulations.

Personally, my position is that religious doctrines and stories are a bunch of hog wash nonsense of myths and abstract concepts that even “zero IQ quotient ” individuals refuse the premises.

The religious sacerdotal castes would like you to substitute “your belief in a Creator” from watching the cosmos and the mysteries of life, into total faith in their particular ideological constructs and set of values. 

I feel limited in finding a resolution where check and balance can be erected to cope with the all permeating power of the sacerdotal castes in every States around the world. 

Constitutional laws need to be thought out to restrict the implicit power of the thousand tentacles that religions have instituted to infuse their ideologies in schools and civil administration of people’s daily life.

One of the best and most efficient methods is to encourage the establishment of opportunities to exercising choices in every aspect in our lives from birth, decentralized schooling systems, marriages, legal divorce alternatives, and burial at each of the legislative, legal, and executive branches.

Only available opportunities for choices, backed by political determination to honor those choices in the workforce, in the daily living, and in society structure, can permit a fighting chance for all those free minded and reflective citizens and families who respect their potential power for deciding what is best for their spiritual development.

The greatest poet: “The man with the long curly hair” (February 6, 2009)

Baghdad in 809 is the largest metropolis in the world; it has over one million inhabitants. 

In comparison, Paris has less than 100,000 (the contemporary of Charlemagne reign), Damascus less than 400,000 (the former Capital of the Arab Umayyad dynasty), and Samarkand (in current Turkestan)  less than half a million; and most of the cities in North Italy average less than 50, 000 inhabitants. 

Baghdad was newly built less than 75 years ago by the Abbasid Dynasty.  The new Caliph is Al Amine; he is 23 years of age and the former student of poet Abu Nuwass. Al Amine is a learned man and very conversant in poetry.  The poet Abu Nuwass was in exile in Egypt on order of the Caliph Harun Al Rasheed.

Abu Nawass learned that his unique son had died and he hurried his return to Baghdad to join his student Al Amine. Four years of the ultimate in libertine life in the court of Al Amine awaited Abu Nawass. Al Amine had fondness for young eunuch; his mother tried to steer her son toward girls by promoting young girls in boys’ attire (a la garsonne) or whatever it takes.

 

Before the advent of Islam Iraq had been under the Persian Empire (the Sassanide Dynasty) for over 4 centuries.  The Arab tribes of the northern Arab Peninsula were mostly concentrated in the towns of Basra and Kufa in southern Iraq.

The main Capital of the Sassanide Dynasty (Sesiphone) was very close to current Baghdad that did not exist yet, on the other side of the Tiger River. Thus, the Iranians were far more numerous than the original “Arabs” and the culture and civilization of Persia was predominant. 

During Abu Nawass time, 150 years after Islam presence, Iraq was still mostly Persian and the most influential personalities had Persian relatives. There was a large minority from the Sind (current south Pakistan) known as “Tuz”; the European would later name them Tzigan.  

There were many Christian and Zoroaster Iranians, other Christian sects and Jews.  The non-Moslems ran the taverns and produced, imported, and sold alcoholic beverages and wine. The fundamentally Christian sect of Mani (Manichean) spread from Northern Africa to India.  The Abbasid Dynasty started the persecution of the Mani followers and then the Pope of Rome followed suit.

 

Four years later, Al Maamun, the half brother of Al Amine from an Iranian mother, would enter Baghdad and assassinate the Caliph Al Amine. Abu Nawass would be assassinated less than two years later, at the age of 56. 

The Shiaa Moslem sect predominated in Iran for political reasons: in order to have the upper hand on the Kuraich tribe of Mecca, from which all the Caliphs claimed their origins, they had to claim a more legitimate descendant to the Prophet Muhammad. They selected Ali, the fourth Caliph and his offspring Hassan, then Hussein and then the others descendants of Ali and Fatima (the Prophet’s daughter). 

Abu Nawass was comfortable with all sects and minorities, though he would satirize them in his poems as front for his proper belief system that agreed with them.  With the exception of his profound loathing of the Arab tribes originating from the Northern Arabian Peninsula, I think it safe to say that Abu Nawass satires on minorities and Jews are an exit scheme for displaying the “others” point of views.

 

The German Ewald Wagner published 5 volumes of Abu Nawass poems in the seven major genres of bacchanal (wine and drinking binges), erotic, libertine, hunting, panegyric (praises), satire, saturnine (mourning), and ascetic. .  Hamza al Isfahani (946 AD) published 1,500 poems claimed to be of Abu Nawass or a volume of 13,000 lines.

Al Hassan al Hakami, nicknamed Abu Nuwass for his long curly hair), was born in 757 AD in Ahwaz (south east Iran) of an Arab soldier born in Damascus and who was at the sold of the Omayyad Dynasty and a Persian mother Golban (Rose) originating from the Sind (south Pakistan). 

Abu Nuwass didn’t get to know his father and was orphaned.  He followed his mother to Basra and attended a Koranic school. The pretty boy joined his mature cousin Waliba al Hubab (who loved pretty boys) to Kufa.  Back to Basra Abu Nawass becomes the disciple of Khalaf al Ahmar, a “rawi” or transmitter of pre-Islamic poetry.  

Abu Nuwass spent an entire year in isolation with bedwins to correctly learn the Arab language.  By the age of 30, Abu Nuwass relocates to Baghdad during Caliph Harun Al Rasheed reign. Abu Nawass was the contemporary of the mystic Al Hallaj who was horribly executed and from whom Abu Nawass learned the message.

 

The power, smoothness, and loveliness of Abu Nawass poems are that they are solely from experience.  He self describes his life, feelings, the period, the culture, the social settings, the urban amenities compared to the arid and crude customs of the clans in the desert. 

He naturally used Persian words and slang, about 200 words in all, and you could view the kaleidoscope of the period dynamically strolling as you read. Thus, there are no romanticism, sentimentalism, or faked imagination and feelings. In fact, the weakest among his genres are the saturnine (poems of mourning) because he could not force non existing feelings for those who died, even for his closest drinking companions. 

For the panegyric genre Abu Nawass was sober in his praises and tributes and would just reserve the last six lines to that purpose after describing hunting adventures or the difficult trips to reaching the influential personality. Most of the people he praised got satirized anyway.  

The bacchanal and libertine genres are pervasive in almost all of Abu Nuwass poems and that is why this great poet is not taught in schools and his manuscripts relegated to the inaccessible sections of libraries.  The polygraph Al Jaahez (869 AD) wrote “I know of no one who knew the lexical of the Arab language as Abu Nuwass.  His expressions were very pure and soft and avoided disagreeable terms

 

The other great Arab poet Al Mutanabi (one hundred year later and a master craftsman in coining memorable verses) would say that the other poets toil on their work while his poems come to him easily and naturally; I feel that this statement apply exclusively to Abu Nawass who did not edit and publish his poems.  Al Mutanabi managed to gather and edit his complete work before he was assassinated.

Francois Villion (1498) published his “Testament” of forgiveness that is almost a carbon copy of Abu Nawass “God forgive me” piece.  No wonder, Medieval Europe and up to the Renaissance had vast knowledge of Arab literature and published works because Arab civilization was the “in thing”.

Abu Nawass clearly proclaimed his preference for pretty boy of 15 year-old with large thighs and oval faces. You may read my article “The Gods of beauty: Before the age of pimples” (February 7, 2009)

 

I have read Al Moutanaby, Al Maary, Omar Khayyam, Ibn Araby, and Hafez; they emulated Abu Nawass well, each one in his favorite genre; Abu Nawass is the Master; the other poets have did their best.

I have read Rimbaud, Verlaine, and Baudelaire; they are good poets; Abu Nawass is their Master; they have done the best they could

Lebanon: An improbable Statehood in the making (Part 2, February 20, 2008)

Note:  I added four footnotes for current development    

Under the leadership of Hezbollah, the Shias in the south and the Bekaa Valley are basically the main caste shouldering the heavy burden of defending Lebanon from the frequent aggressions of Israel.  Without the Shiaa, south Lebanon would have long been swallowed by Israel and Lebanon divided and scraped from the number of independent States.  It is the Shiaa who forced Israel to withdraw unconditionally from the south in May 24, 2000.  It is the Shiaa who foiled the strategy of Israel of reconquering the south of Lebanon in July 2006 and installing a Pax Americana in the Greater Middle East.  

Hezbollah split from the main “Amal” Shiaa movement around 1983 and adopted an ideology tightly linked to the Khomeini hardliners in Iran and is made responsible for the suicide attacks against the US and French headquarters in Beirut.  Hezbollah was the only resistance movement allowed by Syria to operate against Israel’s occupation in the south of Lebanon since 1991 when the US Administration permitted Syria mandate over Lebanon for over 15 years.  Syria had prohibited all the other Lebanese nationalistic and progressive parties to resume their liberation resistance during its occupation of Lebanon. 

After the assassination of Rafic Hariri PM in 2005 and the withdrawal of the Syrian troops from Lebanon we have been experiencing a serious void in the legitimacy of the current government.  The entente between the Tayyar political party of Michel Aoun (Free Patriotic Movement for Reform and Change) and Hezbollah has allayed the perception that schemes for a recurring civil war in under planning.  The patient internally non-violence strategy of Hezbollah in conducting non-cooperation activities against an unjust and usurping government has permitted the Lebanese population to gain the assurance and relief that another civil war is not feasible.  

This Seniora’s government and its allies have been plundering the public treasury for the past three years and for the last 15 years under Rafic Hariri; this continuous regime has been spreading poverty and deepening the indebtedness and ineptness of Lebanon, with the explicit support of the Bush administration, under the guise of empty rhetoric of democracy, security and independence from Syria’s indirect involvement in Lebanon.

  Consequently, the Shiaa have proven to be the legitimate sons of an independent Lebanon and have paid the prices of martyrdom, suffering, sacrifice and pain in order to be the guarantor for the emergence of a Nation against all odds.  It is the sacrifices of the Shiaa and their patience to suffer for the benefit of all Lebanese that is providing them with the leverage of flexibility, intent to change, learn from experience and improve.  The successive unilateral withdrawals of Israel from Lebanon since 1982 without any preconditions have given the Lebanese citizen grounds to standing tall. 

Our main problem is that the International requirements of Lebanon and our local politics are at odds.  The USA, Europe and Saudi Arabia would like to settle the Palestinian refugees as Lebanese citizens with full rights and thus avoiding the corny problem of their legitimate rights to be repatriated to Israel as stated in the UN resolution of 194.  The Monarchy in Saudi Arabia has been viewing the Palestinian question as a major liability since the extremist party of Hamas has taken power in Gaza; Saudi Arabia is exhausted of paying the bills everytime Israel destroys the infra-structure of Lebanon and covering some of the expenses of the Palestinian refugees and would like an end to this conflict that is hampering the internal stability of the Wahabi Saudi regime. Israel invasions of Lebanon and its genocide tactics against the Palestinians are done at the urging of the USA 

The two main local movements of the Future Party and Hezbollah are more than content for this unconstitutional political dilemma which suits their short-term interests.  The Future is satisfied with its dominance among the Sunnis in Beirut and the North and thus, giving the Palestinian refugees citizenship might create an unknown variable that could disrupt the majority of the Sunni allegiance to the Al Moustakbal.  Consequently, the Hariri clan cannot disobey the Saudi orders but it cannot shoot itself in the foot.  Externally, the Hariri clan is pro Saudi but in reality it is very cozy with the Syrian position on the Palestinian refugee status as its strongest card during the negotiations with the USA and afterward.  The unstable constitutional political system in Lebanon may delay indefinitely any serious pressures from Saudi Arabia and the USA to resolving the Palestinian refugees’ question.  Hezbollah is weary of having to deal with a constitutional government and negotiate returning its arms to the Lebanese army.  Thus, the two main parties in Lebanon are supporting each other practically and just playing the game of opposing forces.

  Furthermore, The USA has decided after the fiasco of the July war in 2006 that no more investment in time on Lebanon is appropriate at this junction.  We have to wait for a new US administration to decide whether it is willing to re-open the file of the Near East problems.

The allies to the two main parties are side shows; they know it and they cannot change camps with the deep mistrust for the other side pledges and dependent policies to foreign powers.  Thanks to the vehement rhetoric against Syria or its allies in Lebanon by Walid Jumblatt and Samir Geaja, the Future party has been able to give the impression that it is against the Syrian regime while practically it agrees with the Syrian positions and would like to keep the present status quo in Lebanon’s political system of the Taef Constitutional amendments.  

General Michel Aoun has realized that he has been taken by the sweet tender offers of Hezbollah but he cannot shift allegiance or form a third alliance since non resolution of the situation is the name of the game until further agreement among the main Arab states and the main superpowers. Recently, General Aoun has demonstrated his independence by visiting Syria for 5 days amid a popular welcome to re-establish entente between the two people, if not the regimes.

So far, the polemics among the government’s allies and the opposition political parties are not shy of harboring sectarian allegiances in their charged speeches but somehow they failed to discuss the actual caste, or closed religious system in our social structure, which is the fundamental problem toward a modern state of governance. I do not believe that any fair and representative electoral law is of utility unless the basic caste system is recognized as a sin and altered accordingly to represent an alternative for the citizen joining a united and free status under one State. 

The first step is to instituting a voluntary State marriage law and letting the situation unfold into a more liberal understanding of the need of the people.  The road is very long and arduous before the beginning of a semblance of trust among the Lebanese is established.  However, I feel that the Shiaa under the leadership of a wise and disciplined Hezbollah and their corresponding Christian Free Patriotic movement are leading the way for a semi-autonomous Lebanon, at least in its internal restructuring.  I believe that the necessities of survival would loosen up many stiff ideological and caste roadblocks toward a reformed political system and the institution of a governing body that abide in integrity, accountability and justice for all.

It is a fact that extremist Sunni “salafist” ideology is gaining quickly in all the Arab and Moslem World, out of desperation and the widespread illiteracy and lack of job openings. (See note 3).  Maybe our mix of all kinds of sects might be a rampart to our moderate liberal tendencies.

The spirit of Statehood is coming from an unforeseen quarter; mainly the Shiaa caste freshly arriving in the social and political scene around 1970.  This disinherited caste was already a majority when the civil war of 1975 broke out and it suffered from the total ignorance of the central government for infrastructure and social services and had also to suffer the humiliation and atrocities of frequent Israeli air raids and land attacks and bombing of their villages under the disguise of dislodging the Palestinian guerillas.  

The Shiaa caste is opening up to almost all sects and managed to ally with large sections of many other castes.  This extending arm might be considered as necessary out of the realization that they are a majority in Lebanon and a real minority in the neighboring States of Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. This necessity is a blessing to Lebanon because the main major caste is encouraging unity against foreign invaders. 

In the event that Hezbollah maintains its strength then it can be forecasted that the economic strategy of Lebanon will shift from tourism and third sector (the Hariri’s clan strategy) into more emphasis on agriculture and small and medium industries, many of it geared toward guerilla warfare.  This is how the future looks like to me if no overall peace treaty with Israel is realized any time soon.

 

I used the term “Statehood” for Lebanon in a general sense to convey that a form of unity is developing in the conscious of the Lebanese but this notion of Nation is far from appropriate to Lebanon simply because experiences since independence could not provide any evidence to a unified people under legitimate and responsible central governments.  Lebanon is fundamentally an amalgamation of castes that enjoy self-autonomy.  I still believe that the Syrians, Lebanese, Palestinians, and Jordanians naturally form a Nation and they should generate a common market with separate recognized States.

I am convinced the Taef Constitution was meant to have total entente among the various main three religious castes in Lebanon before starting to elect a new president to the Republic; the entente should involve everything from election law, to the constitution of the government and other priorities.  This fact translates into agreement among the main Arab States and the main superpowers on how Lebanon should be governed during six years.  Unless the Lebanese leaders and political parties get together to review the Taef Constitution and be willing to pay the price of deciding to have a mind of their own then Lebanon is de facto under the UN protectorate.

 

Note 1: the current Dawha agreement translated the spirit of Taef in its temporary execution until the Parliamentary election takes place.

 

Note 2:  The Future movement of the Hariri clan (Saad Hariri is a Saudi citizen) is practically pro-Syrian but it cannot overtly open up to the Syrian regime as long as Saudi Arabia is not currently in good term with President Bashar Assad.

 

Note 3:  The Sunni “salafist” movement expressed its strong arm tendencies in the Palestinian camp of Nahr Al Bared; the Lebanese army destroyed the camp along with the extremist Sunni group and the ramifications are not over in our internal strife.

 

Note 4:  The social/political structure is held by 19 recognized castes or columns that grow at different paces in demography.  Thus, the top of our Temple must be very flexible and changeable when foreign powers decide to destabilize the tacit agreement among the caste political feudal leaders.

Lebanon: An improbable Statehood in the making (Part 1, February 19, 2008)

 

Note: I had this large file; I split it in smaller specialized topics. Thus, I created another category called “Lebanon/Middle East”.  I divided the large articles into parts of less than 1500 words after re-editing and attaching notes for current events.

 

                        Lebanon has been mentioned countless times in the ancient stories of the Jewish Bible as the land of milk and honey and snow covered majestic mountains (thus its name) and of cedars, pine and oak trees. Lebanon has been described for its skilled inhabitants and sea faring mariners and commercial ingenuity by establishing trading counters around the Mediterranean Sea.  Lebanon is recognized as a formal States in the UN since its inception in 1946 at the sessions in San Francisco after the end of WWII; its delegate participated in the writing of the UN charter and the Human Rights.  Lebanon snatched its independence from the colonial mandated France in 1943 with a big help from Britain.  The last French troops vacated this land in 1946.  Still the Lebanese are lacking the definitive belief in a motherland.

                        Lebanon is surely a good place for leisure time and a vacationing location for its immigrants; many families that can afford to leave for greener pastures are not overly disturbed of not returning definitively.  Most Lebanese have not participated as a “Nation” to defend the land of aggressors and to preserving its unity.  After over 65 years of nominal independence the political system has failed miserably to convince the Lebanese that prospect for security and lasting development is feasible.

                        The main problem is that we have 19 officially recognized castes, closed sects, with autonomous personal status legal systems, associated with each respective sect.  Thus, the Lebanese citizen is practically a member of a caste from birth to death whether he likes it or not.  The political system has followed this caste structure and allocated the civil service positions, and in the highest levels, according to tacit agreements. A strict quota define what level and which function a citizen can attain and the number of deputies in the Parliament and ministers in the government according to a structured quota relative to the hierarchy of the caste after each civil war.

                        Members of a caste have realized that services could be obtained through the leadership of their caste and not from a central government or legal rights.

 

                        There are large sections among the citizens who have leftist tendencies, such as Marxists, progressives and seculars.  The main two political secular parties are comprised of members from all castes; they would like to establish reforms to the political system. Thus, the following harsh criticisms are not targeting individuals but the social structure in general.  Unfortunately, I had to adopt sectarian terminology in order to get the point through as clearly and as simply as feasible.

                        The Druze sect located mainly in the Chouf district and part of the Bekaa Valley that borders the Golan Height was originally a Shiaa sect affiliated to the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt around the 13th century.  When we mention Shiaa it is meant a sect among other sects that refused to abide by the Moslem Sunni sect that paid allegiance to a Caliphate not directly descending from the Prophet Mohammad.  After the demise of the Fatimid dynasty the Druze were harshly persecuted and they opted to close the membership in order to discourage serious infiltrations to their sect.  They admonished their members to have two positions, one that would satisfy the power to be and another of a more intimate belief system.  For example, Walid Jumblat is a typical Druze leader with two-faced messages and ready to change his political position when opportunities of allying to the strongest power materialize. In general, the Druze sect is suspicious and even hates every sect bordering their location of concentration.  They have practically allied to anyone that might weaken the political and economic status of their neighboring sects.  The Druze is the only citizen who recognizes that he belongs to a caste, a closed religious sect, where no outside believers can be accepted and none of the members scratched from the register. This is a dying sect that failed to open up and comprehend or assimilate the notion of belonging to a larger community or nation to unite with.

                        The Moslem Sunni sect is even worse than the Druze because it has been functioning as a caste since independence but not acknowledging it.  The Sunni sect has nothing in its religion to prevent it from opening up and uniting with other sects under one nation. It has enjoyed supreme privileges as the main caste during the Ottoman Sunni Empire and had the opportunities to concentrate in the main cities on the littoral and also to trade and communicate with foreigners and other sects but it opted to hide in its shell and stave off changes and reforms.  Foreign travelers and many accounts have revealed that nobody could rent in a Sunni house or has been invited inside their lodging. Only Sunni males were seen outside doing business; women were never seen outside their domiciles. Man reached the moon but the Sunni caste has yet to acknowledge this achievement.

                        The leaders of the Sunni caste agreed in the National Pact, right after independence, to share power with the Christian Maronite sect but they kept vigilant to continuously allying with the most powerful Sunny Arab State of the moment.  The civil wars of 1958 and then 1975 started in order to regain hegemony over the Maronite political privileges in the new political system.  The Sunni sect has allies with the monarchies in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the Sunni State of Egypt and it frequently takes positions with Arab foreign powers at the detriment of national unity.  In general, the Sunni still hope for a return to a Caliphate reign and support all kinds of Sunni fundamentalists and salafists.  This caste is very adamant in proscribing matrimonial relationship outside its caste.

             The Maronite sect was very open for centuries and was the main religion that established roots in the Druze canton because the feudal Druze landlords needed the Maronite peasants to work their hard lands.  In 1860 a bloody civil war broke out in the Druze canton and thousands of Maronites were massacred.  When Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, it encouraged the Christian Lebanese Forces to entertain military presence in the Druze canton.  As the Israeli forces vacated the Chouf region then the Druze feudal lord Walid Jumblat asked the aid of the Palestinian factions at the orders of the Syrian regime and he systematically slaughtered the Maronites and thus, drove the Christians out of the Druze canton and back to their original cantons of centuries back. 

            Since 1990, the government allocated over two billion dollars to repatriate the Christians to the Chouf and only 15% returned; there is no accountability in which black hole all that money was siphoned in. The Maronite adopted the closed sect system when agreeing to the National Pact and it is extremely difficult for non-Christians to join this sect.

           

            The Shia Moslem sect is currently the most numerous but it was not so when Lebanon got its independence and it was not centralized to effect any political changes. The feud between the Shiaa and the Sunny is historically and fundamentally a clan warfare between the Muslims who demand the Caliphate to be a direct descended to the Prophet and those who don’t mind as long as the Caliphate is from the Kureich family, mainly Hashem or Ummaya or whatever.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

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