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Posts Tagged ‘String theory

 Black Holes: Facts, Theory and Definition

So far, what physicists and astrophysics scientist claim is that:

1. Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space.

2. They are objects of extreme density,

3. with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough.

Albert Einstein first predicted black holes in 1916 with his general theory of relativity.

The term “black hole” was coined in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler, and the first one was discovered in 1971.

 

Supermassive may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge together.

Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass.

A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together.

Intermediate black holes – stuck in the middle

Scientists once thought black holes came in only small and large sizes, but recent research has revealed the possibility for the existence of midsize, or intermediate, black holes.

Such bodies could form when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction. Several of these forming in the same region could eventually fall together in the center of a galaxy and create a supermassive black hole.

Black hole theory — how they tick

Black holes are incredibly massive, but cover only a small region.

Because of the relationship between mass and gravity, this means they have an extremely powerful gravitational force. Virtually nothing can escape from them — under classical physics, even light is trapped by a black hole.

Such a strong pull creates an observational problem when it comes to black holes — scientists can’t “see” them the way they can see stars and other objects in space.

Instead, scientists must rely on the radiation that is emitted as dust and gas are drawn into the dense creatures. Supermassive black holes, lying in the center of a galaxy, may find themselves shrouded by the dust and gas thick around them, which can block the tell-tale emissions.

Sometimes as matter is drawn toward a black hole, it ricochets off of the event horizon and is hurled outward, rather than being tugged into the maw.

Bright jets of material traveling at near-relativistic speeds are created. Although the black hole itself remains unseen, these powerful jets can be viewed from great distances.

Black holes have three “layers” — the outer and inner event horizon and the singularity.

The event horizon of a black hole is the boundary around the mouth of the black hole where light loses its ability to escape. Once a particle crosses the event horizon, it cannot leave.

Gravity is constant across the event horizon.

The inner region of a black hole, where its mass lies, is known as its singularity, the single point in space-time where the mass of the black hole is concentrated.

Under the classical mechanics of physics, nothing can escape from a black hole.

However, things shift slightly when quantum mechanics are added to the equation. Under quantum mechanics, for every particle, there is an antiparticle, a particle with the same mass and opposite electric charge. When they meet, particle-antiparticle pairs can annihilate one another.

If a particle-antiparticle pair is created just beyond the reach of the event horizon of a black hole, it is possible to have one drawn into the black hole itself while the other is ejected. The result is that the event horizon of the black hole has been reduced and black holes can decay, a process that is rejected under classical mechanics.

Scientists are still working to understand the equations by which black holes function.

Interesting facts about black holes

  • If you fell into a black hole, gravity would stretch you out like spaghetti. Don’t worry; your death would come before you reached singularity.
  • Black holes do not “suck.” Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive black hole definitely is not. Instead, objects fall into them.
  • The first object considered to be a black hole is Cygnus X-1. Rockets carrying Geiger counters discovered 8 new x-ray sources. In 1971, scientists detected radio emission coming from Cygnus X-1, and a massive hidden companion was found and identified as a black hole.
  • Cygnus X-1 was the subject of a 1974 friendly wager between Stephen Hawking and a fellow physicist Kip Thorne, with Hawking betting that the source was not a black hole. In 1990, he conceded defeat. [VIDEO: Final Nail in Stephen Hawking’s Cygnus X-1 Bet?]
  • Miniature black holes may have formed immediately after the Big Bang. Rapidly expanding space may have squeezed some regions into tiny, dense black holes less massive than the sun.
  • If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
  • Astronomers estimate there are anywhere from 10 million to a billion stellar black holes, with masses roughly thrice that of the sun, in the Milky Way.
  • The interesting relationship between string theory and black holes gives rise to more types of massive giants than found under conventional classical mechanics.

 

How astrophysicists view the universe: What is Anti-matter?

Astrophysicists love to invent new terminologies for every theory they put forward on “how the universe functions or how it was created or behaves”.  You might discover that many of these views were explained since antiquity by scholars and “philosophers”. I will give a few samples and then offer my version that might bring a consensus of the various lucubrations.

For example:

The universe is Ekpyrotic: A pair of universes collided.

The universe has White Holes that spit out matters

The universe has Dark energy: If you regularly observe an unstable object then, it will never decay (The Zeno effect in quantum mechanics).  Thus, the universe is forced back to a false vacuum.

The universe is in fact a simulated one or a Matrix universe.

The sky is a wall with an image of its stars and galaxies: The universe is a Hologram.

There are multi-universes of an infinite numbers of universes called Black Hole Babies.

There is an objective reality of space but physical possibilities do not collapse into a single occurrence.  Thus, for every decision we make a new world is born. This is labelled Many-World Interpretation.

If the universe is infinitely old then, temperature will be uniform everywhere in space.  We end up in a starless sky.  This theory is called Heat Death.

We can compose sets of constants and equations combining relativity and quantum mechanics theories to creating the Theory of Everything.

The universe can be formulated in M-Theory, an extension of String theory.

Let me contribute my own version.  Suppose there was a Big Bang and that matter and anti-matters competed to forming the universe.  They say that matter won the final battle.  Anyway, we could as well said, by convention, that anti-matter won and it would not have changed the reality.

I say, after the Big Bang (since mankind insists that the universe must be created for power sake), two universes were created on each side of the two hemispheres on the location of the Big Bang.  Our side is the universe of matter and the other side the anti-matter.

The hologram phenomenon can be interpreted as matter and anti-matter still “fighting it out” on the separation wall or region between the two universes.  The energy ignited on this wall (that is not necessary a smooth one but can be invading the territory of the two hemisphere) show images of the sky (as if we are watching a fluorescent screen).

Black Holes in our universe are centers of Baby universes.  The entrances to Black Holes spew matters and attract anti-matter.  White Holes could be the counterpart in the other universe, spewing anti-matter and retaining matters. It is probable that the antimatter universe is witnessed from our universe.

Many astrophysicists concur that the universe is expanding.  What about the theory that in this period, more Super Novas are exploding in our universe than in the antimatter universe, and thus, the matter energy released are conquering more territories in the other universe?  Would in another periods, more supernovas in the antimatter universe explode and our universe will shrink?

Since the universe is constantly active, there is no chance for the temperature of the universe to reaching steady-state, and thus, experience a “skyless sky”, no matter how old or timeless is the universe.

As for the Theory of Everything, it is a game played by fanatic rationalists who want to believe that the universe still revolves around mankind, especially man on earth.  The Theory of Everything should not affect the convinient natural laws governing our reality, but it might heat up philosophical concepts in matters of relativity, not just in the scientific fields, but expand into morality and ethics. 

In any theory, there is an exception to be resolved; once that exception is resolved, another exception pops up.  And the cycle continue until there are one too many exception to revise the entire theory.

We live in an objective reality, and the more mankind disturb nature and the universe for million of observation every day, the more the reality changes and is transformed:  Requiring natural laws to be revisited for transformations relevant to changing objective reality.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

April 2021
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