Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘viruses

Who were sacrificed in ancient mass ceremonies?

Epidemics, Pandemics, calamities... Every century has its lot of mass deaths and massacre. In ancient periods, as easy and quick transportation was Not accessible to the masses, epidemics were mostly local.

Even wars were Not that widespread because armies were Not that large (forget what faked history recount of thousands).

Colonial massacres and decimation of autochtone people around the world.

Genocide on scales Never contemplated on ethnic basis, religious, basis, expansionist policies. American Indians in the North and South of the continent, Armenians, Jews, minorities, Christians (Catholics and Orthodox), Muslims in India and Myanmar, Congo, ISIS, Qaeda, Al Nusra, Israel apartheid policies on Palestinians, civil wars….

WWI, WWII, Korea, Viet Nam, Afghanistan, Iraq… Not mention the hundreds of smaller pre-emptive wars by the colonial powers (particularly USA).

And yet, it is the viruses and bacterias that devastated empires far more than stupid wars.

An epidemic every 100 years?

– 1320, the black plague.
– 1520, smallpox.
– 1620, a strange disease.
– 1720, the plague of Marseille.
– 1820, cholera.
– 1920, Spanish flu.
– 2020, the coronavirus.

Not counting Ebola, HIV, Sars, aviary viruses, pig viruses, bovine epidemics…simply because these epidemics were mostly located in Africa

It should never cross your mind that human sacrifice of babies and kids targeted healthy members of the community: They could Not afford it for survival

It is the deformed and handicapped babies and kids that were sacrificed in mass ceremony in order to alleviate parents gilt and tame the intransigence of mothers in front of the pressure of the community.

I dare believe that after the sacrifice, monster orgies were organized intended to grieving mothers.

Mothers had the opportunity to have another go for children, before they sink into a long period of lethargy and apathy.

The pressure of community is palpable in societies were mobility is minimal

How living organisms were created?

From “A short history of nearly everything” by Bill Bryson

When it was created, Earth had no oxygen in its environment.

Cyanobacteria or algae break down water by absorbing the hydrogen and release the oxygen waste,which is actually a very toxic element to every anaerobic organism.

Our white blood cells actually use oxygen to kill invading bacteria.  This process of releasing oxygen is called photosynthesis, undoubtedly the most important single metabolic innovation in the history of life on the planet.

It took two billion years for our environment to accumulate 20% of oxygen, since oxygen was absorbed to oxidize every conceivable mineral on Earth, rust the mineral, and sink it in the bottom of oceans.

Life started when special bacteria used oxygen to summon up enough energy to work and photosynthesize.

Mitochondria, tiny organism, manipulates oxygen in a way that liberates energy from foodstuffs . They are very hungry organisms that a billion of them are packed in a grain of sand.

Mitochondria maintain their own DNA, RNA, and ribosome and behave as if they think things might not work out between us.

They look like bacteria, divide like bacteria and sometimes respond to antibiotics in the same way bacteria do; they live in cells but do not speak the same genetic language.

The truly nucleated cells are called eukaryotes and we ended up with two kinds of them: those that expel oxygen, like plants, and those that take in oxygen, like us.

Single-celled eukaryote contains 400 million bits of genetic information in its DNA, enough to fill 80 books of 500 pages.  It took a billion years for eukaryotes to learn to assemble into complex multi-cellular beings.

Microbes or bacteria form an intrinsic unit with our body and our survival.  They are in the trillions, grazing on our fleshy plains and breaking down our foodstuff and our waste into useful elements for our survival.

They synthesize vitamins in our guts, convert food into sugar and polysaccharides and go to war on alien microbes; they pluck nitrogen from the air and convert it into useful nucleotides and amino acids for us, a process that is extremely difficult to manufacture industrially.

Microbes continue to regenerate the air that we breathe with oxygen.  Microbes are very prolific and can split and generate 280 billion offspring within a day.

In every million divisions, a microbe may produce a mutant with a slight characteristic that can resist antibodies.

The most troubling is that microbes are endowed with the ability to evolve rapidly and acquire the genes of the mutants and become a single invincible super-organism; any adaptive change that occurs in one area of the bacterial province can spread to any other.

Microbes are generally harmless unless, by accident, they move from a specialized location in the body to another location such as the blood stream, for example, or are attacked by viruses, or our white blood cells go on a rampage.

Microbes can live almost anywhere; some were found in nuclear power generators feeding on uranium, some in the deep seas, some in sulfuric environment, some in extreme climate, and some can survive in enclosed bottles for hundred of years, as long as there is anything to feed on.

Viruses or phages can infect bacteria. A virus are not alive, they are nucleic acid, inert and harmless in isolation and visible by the electron microscope. Viruses barely have ten genes; even the smallest bacteria require several thousand genes..  But introduce them into a suitable host and they burst into life.

Viruses prosper by hijacking the genetic material of a living cell and reproduce in a fanatical manner.  About 5,000 types of virus are known and they afflict us with the flu, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, Ebola, polio and AIDS.

Viruses burst upon the world in some new and startling form and then vanish as quickly as they came after killing millions of individuals in a short period.

There are billions of species. Tropical rainforests that represent only 6% of the Earth surface harbor more than half of its animal life and two third of its flowering plants.

A quarter of all prescribed medicines are derived from just 40 plants and 16% coming from microbes.

The discovery of new flowery plants might provide humanity with chemical compounds that have passed the “ultimate screening program” over billions of years of evolution.

The tenth of the weight of a six year-old pillow is made up of mites, living or dead, and mite dung; washing at low temperature just get the lice cleaner!

Fielding a couple scientific questions

Question one: “Do electrons smash in the nucleus of an atom?”

Question two: “Do all our cells contain the same ADN?”

For question one:

Yes, electrons in the lowest energy level can circulate in the nucleus of protons and neutrons. The latest atomic model views electrons, in each energy level assigned to them, as moving along determined spaces (orbitals) and not simple trajectories.  We can only attribute probabilities of an electron occupying specific region in the orbital.

Since the orbital of the lowest energy level is considered to be a sphere that include the nucleus then, there are probabilities for electrons circulating in the nucleus at the fundamental energy level.

I guess your corollary question would be “Can an electron in the first level smash into protons and neutrons?  What would be the consequences and what happens when an electron connect with the nucleus?”

The short answer that I read didn’t field that specific question.

We can always join our brains and conjecture before approaching a theoretical physicist.

For example, knowing that the mass of an electron is much lighter than a proton or a neutron; and knowing that the kinetic energy of an electron is much smaller than a proton or a neutron then, an electron will be ejected to other energy levels depending on the value of momentum of coming into contact (or very close to a contact).

Now, has every electron a “matriculation number” that determines that only such an electron should be assigned such an energy level?  I tend to doubt it.

How another electron is “lured” into filling the vacant space of the ejected electron?

My physics knowledge is outdated and I would love your contributions.

In any case, I have this impression that most of the heat generated could be the results of contacts of electrons in the first level with nucleus.

Question two: “Do all our cells contain the same ADN?”

Mostly yes, with two exceptions.

There are two categories of cells that diverge from this general principle.  The first category is the lymphocytes B and the second is the sexual cells or “gamete”. 

The lymphocyte B is in charge of our immune system: it has the ADN constantly re-organized (re-combined) to generate infinite kinds of antibodies adapted to defending our organism.

In the case of the sexual cell, the fecundated egg is created from the contact of two sexual cells (male and female) contributing each 23 unique pairs of chromosomes.  The pair of chromosomes are assembled in a chaotic mix of genes contained in the cells that produce sexual cells.  The newly formed egg cell divides (mitosis) into two identical cells with same ADN.

The replication mechanism induces into rare errors of substitutions, insertions, or deletions of pairs of chromosomes.

The frequency of these errors is about once for every 10 million replications of our total 3.2 billion pairs of chromosomes in mankind molecule.  These erroneous replications result in either an order to destroying the cell or mutating into genetic ailments such as hemophilia.

Mostly, these imperfect replications do not generally alter the proper functioning process of the cell or the correct expression of a gene.

External sources may also alter replications or cell mutation such as ultra violet rays (UV), radioactive rays, viruses, and chemical substances.

The external sources for deficient replications are called “mutagen agents” and they may breakdown pairs of chromosomes.  If internal natural mechanisms fail to repair the broken pair of chromosomes then, a chain reaction of invading chaotic proliferation of defective cells takes hold.  It is hypothesized that the mutation of sexual cells creates new genes and thus, new species.

Thus, with the exception of these two categories of cells, all our body cells (neuron, skin, bone…) have the same ADN.

The answers were extracted from the French magazine “Science et vie” number 1111.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

May 2020
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