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Western colonial powers to dig into its “reserves” of sovereign funds

Implicit sovereign funds of centuries of looted wealth from their colonies

Covid-19 pandemics has forced the colonial powers to start printing currencies in order to cover for the “expenses” of focusing on their crumbling health institutions and lack of the necessary health human services.

They are printing money in the $ trillion, money Not covered my any incoming foreign currencies or export or expanding internal economy.

Fending off mass revolts of serious decrease in standard of living is the price for the creation of inflation at long period. 

A quick overview that condenses the main phases of western colonial powers wealth accumulation.

1) Slave trades:

After Constantinople fell in 1443 into the hands of the Ottoman Empire, all the slave routes from central and eastern Europe stopped. The Europeans colonial powers had to seek slaves from Africa, indirectly from Cairo, Tunisia, Algeria and directly by their own ships.

One third of the slaves died in the crossing of the African desert and as many in the crossing of the oceans.

All the universities and facilities and fancy buildings and institutions were the result of slave trading. And the symbols are falling and the universities are starting to redirect funds for the inclusion of “minorities” into their programs.

Actually, the American colonies revolted against England because the British Empire made it illegal to “import slaves”. Implicitly, England didn’t stop trading slaves but this law was a sword to harass the rich colons who were expanding their business and Not paying enough taxes.

2) First industrial revolution and child labor.

In order to export products to the colonies at exorbitant “added values”, the colonial powers in mainly England and France put children and women to work in sweatshop factories and in the mines.

Generations of youth were lost in shortened life expectancy, uneducated, and a life of miseries and indignities.

These generations were sacrificed simply because the people in the colonies were Not to learn any skills in production or transforming their raw materials into even semi-finished products.

3) Second industrial revolution and mass infrastructure and transport within their countries and in the colonies in order to quicken the exploitation of the raw materials in their colonies and fast transport of moving of their troops.

4) From 1950 to 1980, China experienced 30 years of internal instability, famine and inequities. Millions of Chinese barely survived the many dogmatic pronouncement of Mao that reduced this Nation into stagnation at all level: economically, financially, education, culture…

Millions starved, were dispatched into far away villages and camps, and forgotten there. China just lived in the memory of faked propaganda as the leading fair and equitable communist nation. The western colonial powers had a field day of Not encountering any serious economic competitor.

5) The fall of Berlin Wall and invasion of financial multinationals of world markets.

The US lead the way in concretizing the notion of “World Free Market” by forcing the acceptance of their financial multinationals in the economy and finance and production in the foreign countries.

Financial crisis followed crisis and many countries suffered the movements of faked and fictitious trillion of dollars circulating around the globe, with no fundamental coverage in Gold or real material production.

And what now?

China is in the forefront at all levels.

And still China is the leading country in sweatshop factories, displacing millions to countryside whenever a giga project is underway, and many millions are barely surviving.

Yes, still generation of Chinese are still being sacrificed in order to supply this God of Export, as many generations of the poorer classes in Europe and USA were sacrificed a centuries ago.

And what now?

China is back to re-creating the Silk Road, inland and by sea and is the second most powerful economic power, and by far the the leading creditor nation, if Not the only real creditor nation with $ trillions to spare and buy foreign bonds.

Fact is, almost all States are debtor States, even Japan is the second debt nation after the USA.

Only China and a few of Northern European States (Scandinavian States of Norway, Sweden, Danmark, Holland, Finland…) have “sovereign funds” to rely on in time of major financial crisis.

The colonial powers have to dig into its “reserves” of sovereign funds of centuries of looted wealth in order to fend off mass revolts of serious decrease in standard of living

Note: When all the US liabilities are accounted for, US national debt amount to $135 trillion, Not the official $26 trillion. In this Covid-19 pandemics, the US printed (balance sheet) over $10 trillion. Mind you that during the financial crisis  of 2007, US printed less than one trillion.

No country ever was paid on the principal for US bond purchases. Trump financial blackmail of Saudi Kingdom was of two kinds: Fresh money on useless weapon, and slashing a large portion of Saudi principal, thus reducing the interest to be redeemed.

Before the Corona spread into the western colonial powers: what were their ideological reasoning?

أليس مثيراً للصدمة , أن يتعامل بعض مقكري الغرب مع فيروس كورونا , كظاهرة فلسفية (وحتى كظاهرة غيبية) ,

كان لا بد منها لتفكيك الاستقطاب الايديولوجي , والاستقطاب الثقافي , والاستقطاب القبلي , في القرن الحادي والعشرين ؟

حين كتب فرنسيس فوكوياما مقالته الشهيرة “نهاية التاريخ والانسان الأخير” , في مجلة “ناشونال انترست” صيف 1989 , احتفى كثيرون في العالم بتلك “الرؤية الخلاقة” للزمن البشري . الايديولوجيا ماتت بموت الشيوعية . التاريخ ما لبث أن التحق بها .

هذه حقبة النيوليبرالية والعولمة . الأولوية لقيم السوق . التكنولوجيا فعلت فعلها في الانسان وفي الطبيعة . ردات الفعل كانت عاصفة على نظرية العالم السياسي الأميركي . يقظة القوميات , حتى ببعدها القبلي , ويقظة الأديان .

في منطقتنا حدث ذلك الشيء العجيب .

اسلام الكهوف , بالتأويل الدموي للنص , بدا وكأنه وضع الاسلام الحقيقي جانباً . ثمة من حاول تحويل الديانة الى ايديولوجيا , والايديولوجيا الى … مقبرة !
فوكوياما اعتذر .

التاريخ عاد الى الحلبة . هذا ما بدا جليّاً في آسيا الوسطى , والقوقاز , وصولاً الى البلقان . أيضاً , الايديولوجيا بالتكشيرة الخشبية . بالتوازي مع اتهام ايران بتسويق الاسلام الجنائزي , كانت نظريات أسامة بن لادن , وصولاً الى أبي بكر البغدادي , تذهب بالعدمية الى حدودها القصوى .

لنعد الى ما كتبه غلاة المحافظين في الولايات المتحدة , وسواء كانوا تلامذة ليو شتراوس أم تلامذة برنارد لويس .

غداة ظهور فيروس كورونا , ثم انتقاله , للتو , الى ايران , قالوا هذا عقاب كل من يحاول المس بـ”أميركا المقدسة” . هي “مملكة الله” باعتبارها تستضيف كل الأنواع , وكل الأجناس , وكل الحضارات , البشرية .

حيوان مجهري , لامرئي , غامض , يضرب التنين في القلب . هكذا تعود الصين , ويعود اقتصادها , عقوداً الى الوراء . أميركا سيدة القرن . توقعوا أن يتفكك النظام التيوقراطي في ايران . لاحظوا أن الجمهورية الاسلامية تعاني من هشاشة بنيوية مريعة في مواجهة الفيروس . روبرت كاغان سأل : “اذاً , لمن يعمل الغيب في هذهالحال ؟” .

في لبنان , وبغض النظر عن البدايات الملتبسة في المعالجة , ثمة من كان يعتبر أن الوباء يأتي من مكان واحد , ويفتك بفئة واحدة , أو بمنطقة واحدة ,

قبل أن يتبين أنه يأتي من أكثر من مكان , حتى من الدول التي تعتبر الأكثر رقياً , والأكثر تفاعلاً , مع ديناميات الحداثة .

كورونا غزا أميركا . للتو تلاشت الأسطورة . ستيف بانون , وكان كبير مستشاري البيت الأبيض , لاحظ أن رأس دونالد ترامب يكاد أن يسقط في أي لحظة , الا اذا تمكنت المختبرات الأميركية من صناعة اللقاح المضاد . آنذاك لا أحد يمكن أن يزحزحه من مكانه .

ولايات عزلت . جامعة هارفارد , الأولى في العالم , أقفلت أبوابها . أين هي , في هذه الحال تكنولوجيا … ما بعد الزمن ؟

بول كروغمان , الحائز جائزة نوبل في الاقتصاد , رفع صوته . دعا الى تدمير كل الترسانات البيولوجية , والجرثومية , وحتى النووية . قال بـ”الدخول أكثر فأكثر في الانسان” !

كلنا الآن داخل منازلنا (داخل جحورنا) . نخاف حتى من الهواء . هذا لا يمنع بعض الساسة عندنا من ممارسة هواية التفاهة . لو لم يكن الوباء قد استشرى عالمياً لكانت الطبقة السياسية حزمت حقائبها الى أمكنة آمنة . هم الآن مثل رعاياهم (ضحاياهم) في الزنزانة

كل اللبنانيين يتوحدون الآن في الخوف . تعالوا نبدل الميثاق الوطني , ووثيقة الطائف , بميثاق كورونا . هو الأكثر فاعلية , والأكثر شفافية , في الولوج الى العمق البشري .

الكورونا كظاهرة فلسفية . كروغمان قال “لندع من يخترع مضاداً للفيروس يقود العالم” . أميركا أم الصين ؟ لننتظر …

If most States are reeling under Sovereign debt, including USA and Japan, from where credit is supplied?

Except China, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands and Syria (before the world war on it in 2011), almost all the states in the UN  are reeling under Sovereign debt. The USA alone is over $20 trillion under and Japan over $3 trillion under.

Question: if recently China managed to be a creditor, whatever saving China made, cannot cover a tiny part of world’s debt, (excluding the USA and Japan debts that are beyond comprehension in any scale), then how this financial system is still working?

The USA ceased to be a productive country around 1967 and rom the Gold. Since then, most of US goods , are produced by a third country, and US consumers are relying on third parties to supply their demands.

In fact, the USA has been functioning within a Ponzi system: country buy US treasury bills because the dollars is the world main currency, and the US use this influx to pay its civil servants and its military infrastructure.

Do you know that Japan with a huge sovereign debt buys US treasury bills by the trillion every year? Sure China also buys these bills by a trillion each year. and at a lower scale follow Britain and Saudi Kingdom.

Obama warned the British before the Brexit vote (Exiting the EU):Do Not rely on the USA to back you in your troubles years“. The tiny Brexit majority didn’t take his warning seriously.

Donald Trump has dropped the mask on this Ponzi scheme that has been going on for 6 decades. Trump has started to blackmail any country with surplus money if they still want to rely on US (psychological) military support.

Recently, Trump demanded from Japan and South Korea to pay for US military presence, though Japanese masses have been pressuring the US to withdraw their forces for decades now.

Trump even backed down on his will to withdraw his military presence in Syria in order to exploit the Syrian oil fields, and for free (US highway robbery that doesn’t give a damn of any UN principles).

With shortage of money to buy ridiculous weapons they don’t need, the Saudi Kingdom and the Gulf Emirate are reverting to finance US mercenaries for protection of their unstable “absolute monarchic” powers

So far, US federal budget is covered by China and Japan buying treasury bonds by the trillion.

The Western colonial powers have been supporting one another through short loans at very low interest rate (less than 3%) and then re-lending to the developing nations at 8%.

Now and then, the USA creates a world financial crisis in order to erase part of its past sovereign debts through financial “engineering” malevolent practices that punish the poorer classes around the world, with No exception.

And the USA then rely on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to lend money at exorbitant interest rates with conditions to charge the poorer classes to cover the deficit in their States.

Actually, Not a single State that borrowed from the IMF managed to deal with its conditions without a major mass upheaval. Even European countries are No exceptions.

This mechanism of transferring fictitious wealth through engineered financial transactions is at an end, as China and Russia have decided to have their own financial transaction scheme.

Lebanon, a non-productive tiny country with no raw material, is Not the first State that lived on a Ponzi scheme for 3 decades. The USA has been sustained in a Ponzi scheme for 60 years by now, since it ceased to be a productive country.

So far, the financial structure in the world is still functioning under a Ponzi scheme, a scheme that cannot be sustained. Basically, Asia Far Eastern countries (China, India, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia….) are shouldering the burden by hard working productive activities.

Once China decides that great “growth” is Not the name of the game, but enough productive scale for self sufficiency and to satisfy its close allies, then China will desist from buying US bonds, and the US will have to face this calamity of relying on its Ponzi mechanism.

World World III is not possible against direct war with China or Russia, and China will play the “deep pocket” for the countries resisting US military hegemony.

Note: In all of the financial crashes of 1982, 1990, 1997 and the 2008… the presidents of central banks of the (colonial powers) meet in Bale (Switzerland) to swap papers. The rich get richer and the small creditors are buried under papers

 

This story is included with an NYT Opinion subscription.

JERUSALEM —

As Israel bombarded the people in Gaza with extensive airstrikes and followed up with a ground operation in the Gaza Strip and Hamas reacted by launching rockets at Israeli cities, the most immediate cause of this latest war has been ignored: Israel and much of the international community placed a prohibitive set of obstacles in the way of the Palestinian “national consensus” government that was formed in early June.

That government was created largely because of Hamas’s desperation and isolation. The group’s alliance with Syria and Iran was in shambles. Its affiliation with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt became a liability after a July 2013 coup replaced an ally, President Mohamed Morsi, with a bitter adversary, Gen. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.

Hamas’s coffers dried up as General Sisi closed the tunnels that had brought to Gaza the goods and tax revenues on which it depended.

He is a father, and he just lost his son.

Younes Arar's photo.
Younes Arar's photo.
Younes Arar's photo.
A few hours ago, the 4 Palestinian children of Baker family ((Ahed Atef Bakr (10 years), Zakareya  Bakr (10 years), Mohamad Ramez Bakr (11 years) and Esma’il Mohamad Bakr (9 years))
The four killed kids running before the second shell whipped them down 
‎أولادي الذين لم الدْهم. لو انني التقطتهم بيديّ قبل ان يسقطوا.‎

Seeing a region swept by popular protests against leaders who couldn’t provide for their citizens’ basic needs, Hamas opted to give up official control of Gaza rather than risk being overthrown.

Despite having won the last elections in 2006, Hamas decided to transfer formal authority to the Palestinian leadership in Ramallah.

That decision led to a reconciliation agreement between Hamas and the Palestine Liberation Organization, on terms set almost entirely by the P.L.O. chairman and Palestinian Authority president, Mahmoud Abbas.

Israel immediately sought to undermine the reconciliation agreement by preventing Hamas leaders and Gaza residents from obtaining the two most essential benefits of the deal:

1. the payment of salaries to 43,000 civil servants who worked for the Hamas government and continue to administer Gaza under the new one, and

2. the easing of the suffocating border closures imposed by Israel and Egypt that bar most Gazans’ passage to the outside world.

Yet, in many ways, the reconciliation government could have served Israel’s interests:

1. It offered Hamas’s political adversaries a foothold in Gaza;

2. it was formed without a single Hamas member;

3. it retained the same Ramallah-based prime minister, deputy prime ministers, finance minister and foreign minister; and, most important,

4. it pledged to comply with the 3 conditions for (Western colonial powers) aid long demanded by America and its European allies: nonviolence, adherence to past agreements and recognition of Israel.

Israel strongly opposed American recognition of the new government and sought to isolate it internationally, seeing any small step toward Palestinian unity as a threat.

Israel’s security establishment objects to the strengthening of West Bank-Gaza ties, lest Hamas raise its head in the West Bank. And Israelis who oppose a two-state solution understand that a unified Palestinian leadership is a prerequisite for any lasting peace.

Still, despite its opposition to the reconciliation agreement, Israel continued to transfer the tax revenues it collects on the Palestinian Authority’s behalf, and to work closely with the new government, especially on security cooperation. (Not a correct statement)

But the key issues of paying Gaza’s civil servants and opening the border with Egypt were left to fester.

The new government’s ostensible supporters, especially the United States and Europe, could have pushed Egypt to ease border restrictions, thereby demonstrating to Gazans that Hamas rule had been the cause of their isolation and impoverishment. But they did not.

Instead, after Hamas transferred authority to a government of pro-Western technocrats, life in Gaza became worse.

Gaza is a concentration camp.

Gaza is a concentration camp.

Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), have some scathing, painful things to say about what Israel is doing to Gazans:

[A senior official with the] humanitarian charity has described his organisation’s work among the 1.8 million besieged Palestinian refugees as akin to being “in an open-air prison to patch up prisoners in between their torture sessions”.

Jonathan Whittall, head of humanitarian analysis at MSF, who worked in Libya during the 2011 war, in Bahrain during the uprising of the same year, in Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, South Sudan and Darfur, has bluntly asked his colleagues:

At what point does MSF’s repeated medical action in an unacceptable situation [like Gaza] become complicity with aggression and oppression?”

“An entire population is trapped in what is essentially an open-air prison,” Mr Whittall writes. “They can’t leave and only the most limited supplies – essential for basic survival – are allowed to enter. The population of the prison have elected representatives and organised social services.

“Some of the prisoners have organised into armed groups and resist their indefinite detention by firing rockets over the prison wall. However, the prison guards are the ones who have the capacity to launch large-scale and highly destructive attacks on the open-air prison.”

The current escalation in Gaza is a direct result of the choice by Israel and the West to obstruct the implementation of the April 2014 Palestinian reconciliation agreement. The road out of the crisis is a reversal of that policy.

 

Anti-Zionism does Not equal anti-Semitism: People in the Near East are catalogued Semitic too by the racist Western colonial powers

Someone please tell Hillary Clinton and the University of California

U.C. is at it again, with its deceptive attempt to thwart criticism of Israel.

. Tuesday, Mar 22, 2016

Last summer there was a flurry of activity in the University of California system as U.C. regents were pressured to suppress criticism of Israel on U.C. campuses.

One regent in favor of such silencing played a trump card: He threatened to bring his particularly well-connected partner in to add muscle.

The regent was wealthy developer Richard Blum, his wife is Sen. Dianne Feinstein. Here is what Blum said in September:

I should add that over the weekend my wife, your senior Senator, and I talked about this issue at length. She wants to stay out of the conversation publicly but if we do not do the right thing she will engage publicly and is prepared to be critical of this university if we don’t have the kind of not only statement but penalties for those who commit what you can call them crimes, call them whatever you want.

Students that do the things that have been cited here today probably ought to have a dismissal or a suspension from school. I don’t know how many of you feel strongly that way but my wife does and so do I.

So now a U.S. senator says she’ll use the power of her office to suspend undergraduates for speaking out against Israeli state policies?

Interesting read of her mandate.

Blum was particularly incensed because just a few months before, free speech and pro-Palestinian activists had won a victory.

As I wrote back then:

For a while it looked like on July 23 the regents of the University of California were going to adopt the U.S. State Department definition of anti-Semitism and in some fashion or another put policies into place that would have a severe impact on what can and cannot be said about Israel on each of the 10 U.C. campuses, which together enroll some 230,000 students.

Those students, along with 190,000 faculty and staff, would all be constrained under the regents’ interpretation of the definition.

The decision would in fact be continuing a process that began in 2012, when the California House passed a resolution condemning anti-Semitism (HR35), and continued into this past spring, when the Senate passed a similar resolution (SCR35).

The stage was set, the momentum was there, activists and advocates on both sides were ready to march on the regents meeting in San Francisco and address the regents and U.C. president Janet Napolitano. (A former politician and a judge?

But just before the regents were to meet, it was announced that they had decided to drop the matter entirely and instead to have a discussion about “tolerance” in general at their meeting in the autumn.

Since the autumn there has been speculation as to what, exactly, the regents would vote on; how would “tolerance” be defined?

Well, now we know, and the document under discussion still shows the two main perspectives of the prior discussions. We see efforts to produce a broad and positive statement for tolerance, and also the fingerprints of those who wish to smuggle in a false and destructive equation of anti-Semitism with anti-Zionism, thereby making the University of California a place where any criticism of a certain state’s illegal policies is intolerable.

The manner in which this is done in the current draft is deceptive and underhanded.

In the main body of the text, the rightful condemnation of anti-Semitism is clear and unadorned: “In a community of learners, teachers, and knowledge-seekers, the University is best served when its leaders challenge speech and action reflecting bias, stereotypes, and/or intolerance.

Anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination have no place in the University. The Regents call on University leaders actively to challenge anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination when and wherever they emerge within the University community.”

Fair and good.

But in the introduction to the document we find the proposal for tolerance when it comes to anti-Semitism presented this way: “Anti-Semitism, anti-Zionism and other forms of discrimination have no place at the University of California.”

This portion of the document, separated from the section where the proposals appear, is couched as a “contextual statement.” Thus a casual reader could endorse the proposal itself while being unaware that the entire framing of the discussion of anti-Semitism is being used as a cover for silencing voices protesting state policies that might include, among other things, the continued demolition of Palestinian homes and the building of illegal settlements, which have been publicly condemned by the U.S. State Department and which are part of a Zionist project.

What this means is that if the U.C. proposal passes, the U.S. State Department can protest illegal settlements and the Occupation as a whole, but students and teachers in the U.C. system cannot.

This sleight of hand has been called out by both activist groups and mainstream news sources such as the Los Angeles Times.

California Scholars for Academic Freedom (disclosure—I am a member) states: “For the record, we wish to underscore that criticisms of Zionism are co-extensive with the history of Zionism and have from the start included Jewish voices from a variety of political and religious orientations. The inclusion of such a broad category as either intolerant or bigoted represents a fundamental misunderstanding of the political viewpoints critical of Zionism.

Many political positions, including those that favor Palestinian rights, statehood, and political self-determination, can be considered anti-Zionist although they comply with internationally accepted norms of human rights and principles of democratic self-governance.”

The Los Angeles Times editorial notes that the document

conflates anti-Semitism with anti-Zionism and says both are forms of discrimination that “have no place at the University of California.” It’s difficult to read that as anything other than a warning to those students or faculty members who have fundamental disagreements with the state of Israel. ..

The equation of anti-Zionism with anti-Semitism might also make it easier to stigmatize protests against Israeli policies — particularly the treatment of Palestinians — even if they don’t actually oppose the idea of a Jewish state.

Pro-Palestinian activists on campus are right to fear that such a statement would target their advocacy even when it doesn’t involve anti-Semitic language or harassing behavior.

This issue is not a matter of splitting hairs; it goes to the heart of issues of free speech, and the exercise of power to suppress certain types of political expression while letting others flow freely.

What is most telling about this latest episode is the tactic being employed. Faced with substantial public pressure from grass-roots activists, the regents’ working group chose this back-door route to insert its insidious equation. Now it has been called out, and we should be watching carefully which way the regents will move.

What is happening in California might well serve as an index to how these issues will play out on the national scene.

The position of at least one of the two front-runners in the presidential elections is crystal clear. Hillary Clinton has consistently been one of Israel’s staunchest supporters.

What is most troubling, however, is the fact that she has come out vocally as someone who will, in her own words, make “countering BDS a priority.”

In a letter to potential donors she uses exactly the same equation of anti-Semitism with anti-Zionism that we find in the U.C. document:

I am writing to express my alarm over the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanction [sic] movement, or “BDS,” a global effort to isolate the State of Israel by ending commercial and academic exchanges.  I know you agree that we need to make countering BDS a priority.

I am seeking your advice on how we can work together—across party lines and with a diverse array of voices—to reverse this trend with information and advocacy, and fight back against further attempts to isolate and delegitimize Israel….

I am also very concerned by attempts to compare Israel to South African apartheid.

Israel is a vibrant democracy in a region dominated by autocracy, and it faces existential threats to its survival.  Particularly at a time when anti-Semitism is on the rise around the world—especially in Europe—we need to repudiate forceful efforts to malign and undermine Israel and the Jewish people.

And on Monday, in her appearance before AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee), Clinton doubled down on her support of Israel.  As CommonDreams reports:
During the address, Clinton vowed to take the U.S.-Israel relationship to “the next level”—a level which seemingly includes more war and imperialism, few, if any, rights for Palestinians, and definitely no economic boycotts of Israel….
Later, Clinton doubled down on her previous pledge to dismantle the growing international Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) movement, linking the campaign against Palestinian apartheid to anti-Semitism, saying “we must repudiate all efforts to malign, isolate and undermine Israel and the Jewish people.”
In a statement to Common Dreams, Rebecca Vilkomerson, executive director of Jewish Voice for Peace, said that the speech “is a reminder of the current limits of the mainstream discourse on Israel, which rely on racist and Islamophobic tropes to justify unquestioning support for Israel.”

“From Democrats to Republicans, the message is the same,” Vilkomerson continued. “More arms for Israel, a stronger relationship between Israel and the U.S., no mention of Palestinian rights, and no recognition of the impossible contradiction of being both democratic and Jewish when the state is predicated on maintaining systems of unequal rights and rule by military occupation.”

This is deeply troubling, especially as the Palestinian cause has now been established as one of the most pressing human rights issues of our age.  Education on this issue therefore needs to be rigorous, debated, argued, in order for us to make informed decisions and take meaningful action.

The suppression of ideas is anathema to the university, but this is exactly what is being suggested by reputed leaders in education and politics, all under this deceitful equation.


adonis49

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