Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘“White Russian army”

Cold War effectively started in 1917 and not in 1945:  Similar reasons for dominating Third-World countries

The US historian John Lewis Gaddis analyzed declassified documents in the 70’s and recounted the causes of the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union.  Gaddis confirmed, and Chomsky didn’t contradict, that the Cold War indeed started in 1917 and not during the Korean War in the early 50’s.

So far, no historian refuted the date of the origin of the Cold War or even the causes stated by Gaddis.

In 1917,  Tsarist Russia was considered by the western European nations and the USA as the first among the backward third world nations.  Russia was meant to export raw materials, to extend cheap workforce to industries and businesses invested in Russia, and to be an open vast market for the western colonial products.

After the revolution ended the reign of the Tsar in 1917, the Bolshevik communist party, headed by Lenin, managed to take over the revolution and uprooted the absolute Imperial regime in Russia and started reforming the society.

The “communist” revolution main goal was for Russia to become self-sufficient in all kinds of production and transforming Russia from a third country regime reserved to supplement the capitalist nations with raw materials and cheap work force into a productive socialist community, with fair and equitable laws regulating capital and workers/Capitalists relationship.

The Capitalist nations of USA and England quickly financed and armed an army called the “White Russian army” and launched the counter offensive against the Bolshevik revolution in 1918.

It was a very serious war that lasted four years with the disintegration of the “White Russian army”:  Poisonous gas used by the British in WWI were heavily abused on the “Red Army”.

The soldiers of the White Russian army fled to Turkey, Italy, France, USA, and mostly to Germany.

During this Russian civil war, the Bolshevik revolution countered by disseminating its success stories around the world, demonstrating the feasibility of moving forward toward a productive and socialist society.

Italy, Germany, France, and England were basically weakened after WWI and plagued by social unrest.   Germany was on its knees and the Freikorp soldiers were returning to Germany from the Russian front.

The communist parties in the western States were on the ascendance and fast becoming the main well-organized movement with an ideology that responded to the need of the impoverished populations.

Italy and Germany were ripe to fall into communism, and the US was next ripe after the financial crash of 1923.

Trotsky’s political line was to disseminate communism everywhere and encourage western communist parties to take power.

Pragmatic Stalin reasoned as follows: “If any communist party take over in one of these performing western nations, then capital and expert “know-how” will no longer be converging into Russia, a State still very much in need of everything, because the communists in the western nations will invest in improving their own people”.

The consequence would be that the center of gravity will shift to the west and Stalin will no longer be the main representative of communist movement.

The Stalin league forced Trotsky and his supporters to exile and sacrificed the western communist movement for juicy deals. 

The communists in Germany and Italy were decapitated by the fascist Mussolini and the Nazi in Germany.  The communists in Spain were ordered to split the socialist and left Republican alliance and then sold out to Franco.

As Germany was suffering from the heavy constraints imposed by the Versailles “Peace Treaty”, Germany found Russia of Stalin welcoming them in open arms.  Even before the advent of Nazism, Germany was training its army in Russia, operating military production industries, inventing new war planes and tanks, and conducting joint military training with the Russian army…

After 1950, the US strategy was “either you are with us or with the Soviet Union”.

The third world countries that backed the US were submitted to the same demands that Russia suffered before the fall of the Tsar monarchy:  Mainly, open liberal market, cheap manpower, and exploitation of raw materials for the benefit of the capitalist enterprises…  It is the same capitalist colonial way of doing business.

Note:  I read of the idea that the Cold War started in 1917 from the “Reflection on the university” by Noam Chomsky. The remaining of the reasoning in this article is mine.

Why Hitler invaded Russia: Cycle closing in again?

In the previous two articles I mentioned that:

First, the German General Ludendorff in WWI had a vast vision of Teutonic vital space (Lebensraum) in eastern Europe. Ludendorff and marshal Hindenburg had pressured Lenin (leader of the new Bolshevik revolution) to sign a peace treaty in 1918.  Germany of the Kaiser Reich II doubled in size and in population. 

Lenin could temporarily afford to release Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Roumania, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan to Germany in order to consolidate his communism reign on Russia. 

This extension in size, natural resources, and population didn’t last 6 months before Germany capitulated, but it generated grave consequences. 

Germany had dispatched over one million soldiers to this eastern front in order to transfer natural resources and foodstuff back to famished Germany.  Among the soldiers were the voluntary military corps (people of German origin in the newly acquired lands) known as Freikorps or “franc corps”.

Second, during the six months before the collapse of the German army in the Western fronts, the Freikorps advanced to regain the lands that Medieval Germany had conquered in the 13th century. The Freikorps soldiers felt at home. After the war, they also linked up with the “White Russian army” (supporting Russia monarchy) to jointly fighting the “Red Russian army” of the Bolsheviks.

Third, in the next two years 1919-1921, there were more revolutionary insurrections and upheavals in Germany than all of Europe during the last two centuries.  The fact is that the terrible “Spanish” flu that decimated over 20 million after the war, and the disintegration of three empires (Ottoman, Russian, and Austria), the flux of refugees from Russia and many other countries to Western Europe, and the lengthy Paris “Peace Treaty” negotiations have obscured the chaos that Germany’s political and social structures were experiencing.

Thus, the Freikorps, returning to Germany after the retreat and disbanding of the “White Russian army”, formed the backbone of Germany governments counter attacks on insurgent groups, reformist, communists, socialists movements and parties. The Freikorps squashed with utmost savagery the marxists, communists, and leftist revolts in many cities such as Berlin, Munich, and in the Ruhr region (the main region for heavy industries and mining.).  These reprisals were precursors of what Nazi Germany would apply with the Waffen SS.

Fourth, during the world economic conference held in Italy, Walter Rathenau (Germany foreign affairs minister) tried his best to keeping the Western European States (France, England, Italy) engaged with Germany politically and economically, but he failed.  Thus, Walter Rathenau turned to the Soviet Union and met secretly with the Russian negotiator Leonid Krasin in Rapallo (Italy). 

They signed a secret treaty allowing Germany to re-arm and train within Russia; Germany was to buy oil concession in Baku and trade engineering know-how. Thus, for 20 years, Germany dispatched to Russia thousands of “German work commandos”: they conducted joint military maneuvers and both army officers trained together on tank warfare and aviation (blitzkrieg).  Germany manufactured military planes around Moscow and tested chemical gas warfare.

The English author D.H Lawrence visited Germany around 1924 and wrote a letter to the editor stating: “We could say that life in Germany shifted eastward (toward Russia).  Germany is no longer trying any reconciliation with Western Europe (France, England, Italy).  It is over.  The barrier has closed down.  It is as if German life has lost contact with Western Europe.  Germany gives the impression of vacuum and menace.  Germany is very different from my previous visit two and a half years ago…”

D.H Lawrence resume:

“The German spirit is turned again toward Russia and the Tatars.  Germany is rediscovering its oriental Hun destructive fascination for Attila.  There are these bizarre and strange bands of youth professing anti-materialist faith and extending quasi mystical assertions.  There is something primitive with these youth, as if tribes have exploded into marauding clans.  The ancient charm of the old world is broken.  The shaggy antique savage spirit is instilled.  A dangerous phenomenon is taking place and will influence greatly future events.” (How prophetic; Hitler was barely known at that time)

Why Hitler invaded Russia in 1942 when he had a serious alliance with Stalin and England was on its knees? 

Stalin greatly admired Hitler, and WWII started as Stalin and Hitler invaded Poland in the same time, according to the secret treaty. But France and England declared war on Germany and not on Russia.

Stalin had executed 80% of his military officers (about 30,000) and Russia army was no match to Germany. Did Stalin increase the prices of raw materials and oil because he was losing power and facing grave conditions? What is certain, Stalin demands in lands and dominion were increasing, and Germany wanted to be the dominant power in Continental Europe.

Could Hitler not suffer any longer the existence of two great dictators in his “German vital space“? (Mussolini didn’t count)

Could Hitler no longer suffer the existence of a totally materialistic ideology that would not agree with a particular German Teutonic God as neighbor?

Did Hitler, who didn’t really want to invade England, felt secured that England had learned the lesson after the sustained air attacks and would quickly demand cease-fire? Actually, England was on its knees when Hitler stopped the air raids on England. Did Churchill promised Hitler not to intervene if he invaded Russia? (why Churchill would intervene at this junction, and how?)

Most probably, the allied forces used deep psychology to encouraging Hitler to execute his plans for invading Russia prematurely.  It was well-known that Hitler had dreams of the Teutonic vital space eastward that Germany had acquired in 1918 by a treaty with Lenin.  The military plans were already drawn and waiting for the order.  What plans, drawn by the military, are for if not for being executed?

Most probably, England whispered to Hitler’s general staff that in return for Egypt (that England will not relinquish), Germany could retain the French northern Africa colonies (to humiliate France even further). Is that why the Afrikakorps of Rommel was not supplied and was forgotten by Hitler as it was ready to capture Egypt?

The German and Russian armies fought in lands they jointly maneuvered in for 20 years.

Currently, this Teutonic vital space is at work from an economical perspective after the fall of the Berlin Wall.  Germany export is mostly oriented toward the new States that recaptured their independence from the Soviet Union in 1990.  Germany would have rather have its own European Union formed of Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Ukraine.

The western European States and Greece are just added burden that Germany feels it was pressured to supporting.  Probably, the European Union might adopt a second currency (alongside the Euro) just for internal trade purposes among the economically weaker European States.

Precursors of Nazi “Waffen SS“: Freikorps (Voluntary Military Corps

General Ludendorff, the brilliant military tactician who executed the encirclement strategy on the French army during WWI (and emulating Hannibal’s tactic in Canna), had a vast vision of Teutonic vital space (Lebensraum).

Ludendorff and marshal Hindenburg had pressured Lenin of the new Bolshevik revolution to sign a peace treaty in 1918.

Germany of the Kaiser Reich II doubled in size and in population.  Lenin could temporarily afford to release Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Roumania, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan to Germany in order to consolidate his reign on Russia.

This extension in size, natural resources, and population didn’t last 6 months but it generated grave consequences.

Germany had dispatched over one million soldiers to this eastern front in order to transfer natural resources and foodstuff back to famished Germany.  Among the soldiers were the voluntary military corps known as Freikorps or “franc corps”.

In the mean time, the Bulgarian front collapsed, which forced the Ottoman Empire to sign a cease-fire with the allied forces of France, Italy, England, Japan, and the USA.

The flu epidemic had ravaged all the States that participated in the war and over 20 millions died from this virulent flu.  The German soldiers on the western front were dying of famine and the flu and started to disperse.

Thus, during the six months before the collapse of the German army in the Western fronts the Freikorps (mostly people of German origin in the newly acquired land) advanced to regain the lands that Medieval Germany had conquered in the 13th century.  And the Freikorps soldiers felt at home; they also linked up with the “White Russian army” (supporting Russia monarchy) to jointly fighting the “Red Russian army” of the Bolsheviks.

In the two years 1919-1921, there were more revolutionary insurrections and upheavals in Germany than all of Europe during the last two centuries.

The fact is that the terrible flu and the disintegration of three empires (Ottoman, Russian, and Austria), the flux of refugees from Russia and many other countries to Western Europe, and the lengthy Paris “Peace Treaty” negotiations have obscured the chaos that Germany’s political and social structures were experiencing.

The Freikorps, returning to Germany after the retreat of the “White Russian army”, formed the backbone of Germany governments’ counter attacks on insurgent groups and parties.

The Freikorps squashed with utmost savagery the marxists, communists, and leftist revolts in many cities such as Berlin, Munich, and in the Ruhr region (the main region for heavy industries and mining.).  These reprisals were precursors of what Nazi Germany would apply with the Waffen SS.

For example, the Ehrhardt  brigade, the most extremist among the Freikorps, paraded at the Brandenburg Arch (Berlin) wearing the future Nazi swastika symbol on their helmets (years before Hitler adopted that symbol)


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2021
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