Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Wikipedia

Tidbits and notes. Part 430

The racist “Silent Majority”, who cannot suffer free opinions Not matching its belief system, exercises tyranny on the minorities.

US colonies wanted independence because they wanted to maintain the slave trade for their plantations after England banned the trade. Since then, USA is enslaving people around the world by all means available

The USA constitution was Not meant for people of Color, Red, black or yellow. The Right to own guns was a right to shoot at every person of color who trespass the plantation. Time to interpret this Constitution in the context of the period.

Since its independence in 1943, Lebanon successive governments and institutions totally ignored the southern region, the Bekaa valley and the northern regions: they were to fend for themselves to survive. The southern region had no borders with Syria and they were plagued with the “legitimate” presence of Palestinian PLO in their midst and the successive excuses for Israel to bomb their towns and force them to flee (al Da7iyat)

Les Americains, avant les Europeens, croient en la réalité de la “race”. La race devient L’ enfant innocent de mére Nature. Une affaire de hiérarchie

Globally, around 10% of health care expenditure goes towards the treatment of dementia.

The world is deep in the red and the only way out is to borrow some more. That’s despite global debt at a record $250 trillion.

Myanmar tour groups are offering trips to The Hague. It’s a way to support Aung San Suu Kyi, who will represent her country as it faces genocide charges at the UN’s top court. (Aung San Suu Kyi must be stripped of her Peace Nobel for keeping silent of the genocide: over 750,000 took refuge in Bangladesh, Not counting the thousands who were assassinated)

Only one airline is willing to deport high-risk immigrants from the US. And it’s charging the government as much as $33,500 per hour.

Anyone can edit most Wikipedia pages, and the site counts 36.7 million accounts, 121,000 of which have edited something in the past month.

The next level is administrator, of which there are 1,142; elected by about 12,000 eligible members of the community, they can block users and delete many (though not all) pages.

Bureaucrats are higher-level administrators, and there are only 18 in English-language Wikipedia. There are 36 stewards who “hold the top echelon of community permissions.” A 10-person Arbitration Committee “is analogous to Wikipedia’s supreme court.” Jimmy Wales told the Guardian that he’s the “constitutional monarch”: “Like the Queen. It doesn’t mean I have any actual power.”

You are as many as the number of languages you know (I guess could read in the original, and actually read and comprehend?)

Qui s’ interesse a un paradigme depasse’? Tous ces genies qui ont contribue’ a nos connaissance, tres peu de gens s’interessent aux origines des assumptions et leur procedures.

Giving birth is far more a mystery than death. And yet, the processes of birth is more understood than dying. Meaning, it is our psychic that fabricates more mysteries for us Not to be absorbed or swallowed.

The philosopher of Athens, Anaxagoras, demanded that the citizens of Athens define what they claim to be “gods“. How a reasonable person can adore an entity that he cannot know? Anaxagoras was judged as a heretic and banned. He took refuge in Lampsaque of Milet in Turkey.

The “citizens” of Athens were close-minded and de-facto controlled by adventurer aristocrats who have great influence on the common “citizens”. It is the talented and hard working “strangers” who built the city. Classical Europe fabricated a mythical “democratic” City-State Athens

Les haitairies d’Athens (the strangers), similar to modern gangs of youths, had their own code (of honors) their languages (slang), feast and…

“Nous sommes des riches citoyens d’ Athens, et les pauvres meteques affluent  pour le miel. Quand nous vainquerons Sparte, on les transfera a Sparte pour la peupler”.

A black female cat is hiding behind a flower pot, her behind blocked by a wall. The male cat is looking at her and waiting. And you claim that sex is Not controlling our behavior.

If it were Not for the internal civil wars among Greece city-States, the Roman empire would not have emerged that soon. The Mediterranean sea would have been split between two merchants empires: Carthage and Athens. Carthage would have conquered Africa, and Athens would be in constant wars with Persia, Turkey, and the northern Caucasian people around the Black Sea.

To read the short stories of Dino BuzzatiLes nuits difficiles” and “Les 7 messagers”

To read “Madame Socrate” by Gerald Messadie’. All you need to know about the city-state of Athens.

Where are all the women, Wikipedia?

Dec. 9, 2016

It is often said that women have been written out of history. We have all heard of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison, but few are familiar with their contemporary, Margaret E Knight, a prolific American inventor who held over 20 patents and was decorated by Queen Victoria.

Knight created her first device, a safety mechanism for textile machines, after witnessing a factory accident aged just 12. She later invented a machine that created the flat-bottomed paper bags still used in grocery stores today.

When she died in 1914, an obituary described her as a “woman Edison”. Somewhat dispiritingly, she has also been described as “the most famous 19th-century woman inventor”. But how many of us know her name?

Margaret E Knight – a prolific inventor so little-known that we aren’t even able to verify this photo of her.

Margaret E Knight … a prolific inventor so little-known that we aren’t even able to

If you were to try and research Knight’s life and work, you might struggle.

Her Wikipedia profile is just under 500 words long; Edison’s is more than 8,500.

Of course, Edison’s contribution to the development of the electric light warrants a significant write-up, and his legacy deserves a lengthy profile. But his Wikipedia page also contains minute detail about his early life, diets and views on religion.

By contrast, information on Knight’s page is scant, though she too invented an item still widely used today. Her profile lacks many details (including any mention of her first invention), which are available elsewhere online, particularly on websites dedicated to commemorating the work of female inventors.

That such resources exist says a lot about the erasure of women such as Knight from more mainstream information sources.

This week, it was revealed that only around 17% of notable profiles on Wikipedia are of women.

While we bemoan the sexist bias that prevented many historic female figures from being rightly commemorated and celebrated, there is a risk that history may be repeating itself all over again.

ounder of the Everyday Sexism Project. She writes for the Guardian women’s blog each week about women’s experiences of sexism

Perhaps the disparity is unsurprising given that only around 15% of Wikipedia’s volunteer editors are female.

Reasons suggested for the gender gap have ranged from the elitist nature of the “hard-driving hacker crowd” to the overt harassment and misogyny faced by female editors on the site. When one editor suggested a women-only space on Wikipedia for female contributors to support one another and discuss online misogyny, other users vowed to fight the proposal “to the death”.

The trouble with Wikipedia having such a vast gender gap in its notable profiles is that it is one of the most commonly used information sources in the world.

A 2011 study found that 53% of all American internet users look for information on Wikipedia, increasing to almost 70% of college-educated users.

According to web-traffic data company Alexa, it is currently the fifth most visited website in the world.

For such a popular source to present millions of students, researchers and journalists with a hugely gender-biased roster of articles could have a real impact on everything, from young people’s career aspirations to which high-profile figures are invited to speak at conferences and events.

There are on-going efforts to solve the problem, such as this week’s BBC 100 Women edit-a-thon. Meanwhile, Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales has called for a more inclusive and diverse community of editors.

Wales has pointed out that the process by which Wikipedia editors decide collectively whether a particular topic deserves its own article could lead to biased outcomes when those editors are overwhelmingly male. Various projects have been launched to try and address the problem, but progress seems slow.

Knight probably wouldn’t have been surprised by the disparity. In her own lifetime, she faced sexism and discrimination from men – in particular from Charles Annan, who spied on her paper-bag-production prototype and tried to steal the patent, even arguing in court that a woman could never have invented such an innovative machine. But she might have imagined that the gender gap would have improved rather more significantly by 2016.

 

 

 

Children in cocoa production

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Boy collecting cocoa after beans have dried

The widespread use of children in cocoa production is controversial, not only for the concerns about child labor and exploitation, but also because up to 12,000 of the 200,000 children working in Côte d’Ivoire, the world’s biggest producer of cocoa,[1] may be victims of trafficking or slavery.[2]

Most attention on this subject has focused on West Africa, which collectively supplies 69 percent of the world’s cocoa,[3] and Côte d’Ivoire in particular, which supplies 35% of the world’s cocoa.[3]

Thirty percent of children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming.[4]

It is estimated that more than 1.8 million children in West Africa are involved in growing cocoa.[5]

Major chocolate producers, such as Nestle, buy cocoa at commodities exchanges where Ivorian cocoa is mixed with other cocoa.[6]

Production and consumption statistics[edit]

Cocoa bean output in 2012

In Ghana, the cocoa industry began in the late 19th century[10] and in Côte d’Ivoire it began in the early 20th century.[11]

Ghana became the largest cocoa producer in the world in 1910.[10]

By 1980 Côte d’Ivoire overtook Ghana as the biggest producer.[11] In both countries, the majority of farms are small and family owned. The family members, including the children, are often expected to work on the farms.[12]

In the 2008–2009 growing year (which runs October through September[13]), there were 3.54 million tonnes of cocoa beans produced.[3]

African nations produced 2.45 million tonnes (69%), Asia and Oceania 0.61 million tonnes (17%) and the Americas 0.48 million tonnes (14%).[3] Two African nations, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, produce more than half of the world’s cocoa, with 1.23 and 0.73 million tonnes respectively (35% and 21%, respectively).[3]

Different metrics used for chocolate consumption.

The Netherlands has the highest monetary amount of cocoa bean imports (US$2.1 billion); it is also one of the main ports into Europe.[3]

The United States has highest amount of cocoa powder imports ($220 million); the US has a large amount of cocoa complementary products.[3]

The United Kingdom has the highest amount of retail chocolate ($1.3 billion) and is one of the biggest chocolate consumption per capita markets.[3]

Cocoa plantations in Ghana, the Ivory Coast and Malaysia provide 80% of the world with chocolate, according to CorpWatch.[3] Chocolate producers around the world have been pressured to “verify that their chocolate is not the product of child labor or slavery.”[4]

Children in cocoa harvest and processing[edit]

Cocoa pods in various stages of ripening

Cocoa trees are treated with pesticides and fungicides.[14]

Cocoa harvest is not restricted to one period per year and occurs over a period of several months to the whole year.[15] Pods are harvested at multiple times during the harvest season because they do not all ripen at once.[15]

Pod ripening is judged by pod color, and ripe pods are harvested from the trunk and branches of the cocoa tree with a curved knife on a long pole.[15] The pods are opened and wet beans are removed.[14][15] Wet beans are transported to a facility so they can be fermented and dried.[14][16]

Many of these tasks could be hazardous when performed by children, according to the ILO.[9] Mixing and applying chemicals can be hazardous due to pesticide contamination,[14][17] especially because no protective clothing is worn during application.[16]

Clearing vegetation and harvesting pods can be hazardous because these tasks are often done using machetes, which can cause lacerations.[14] This skill is part of normal development in children 15 to 17 years old, but is a higher risk in younger children.[16] Many have wounds on their legs where they have cut themselves.[18] Transport of the wet beans can also be hazardous due to long transport distances and heavy loads; hernias and physical injuries can occur.[16][17]

The director of the Save the Children Fund described “young children carrying 6 kilograms (13 lb) of cocoa sacks so heavy that they have wounds all over their shoulders.”[19]

In 2002, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture investigated the prevalence of child labor in the cocoa industry.[2]

They found 284,000 children working in hazardous conditions in West Africa.[2] Of this, 153,000 children applied pesticides without protective equipment, others picked pods and opened them to get the beans; 64% of the children were younger than 14 and 40% of the children were girls.[2]

Children often began working at 6 am, worked 12-hour days and were beaten regularly

Education of child laborers[edit]

Child laborers are less likely to attend school. They are kept out of school because families need their help on the farms,[18] and 12-hour workdays[2] make it difficult to attend school

. In Côte d’Ivoire, 34 percent of children on cocoa farms attended school compared to 64 percent of children who did not work on farms.[2] Only 33 percent of children from immigrant cocoa workers attended school, while 71 percent of the local children attended school.[2]

Child slavery and trafficking[edit]

In 1998, UNICEF reported that Ivorian farmers used enslaved children—many from surrounding countries.[20] A 2000 BBC documentary described child slavery on commercial cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire.[2][21] In 2001, the US State Department estimated there were 15,000 child slaves in cocoa, cotton, and coffee farms in Côte d’Ivoire,[22] and the Chocolate Manufacturers Association acknowledged that child slavery is used in the cocoa harvest.[22]

Malian migrants have long worked on cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire,[23] but in 2000 cocoa prices had dropped to a 10-year low and some farmers stopped paying their employees.[23] The Malian counsel had to rescue some boys who had not been paid for five years and who were beaten if they tried to run away.[23]

Malian officials believed that 15,000 children, some as young as 11 years old, were working in Côte d’Ivoire in 2001.[19] These children were often from poor families or the slums and were sold for “just a few dollars” to work in other countries.[19]

Parents were told the children would find work and send money home, but once the children left home, they often worked in conditions resembling slavery.[2] In other cases, children begging for food were lured from bus stations and sold as slaves.[24]

In 2002, Côte d’Ivoire had 12,000 children with no relatives nearby, which suggested they were trafficked,[2] likely from neighboring Mali, Burkina Faso and Togo.[25] According to a 2009 snowball sampling study, the majority of those with childhood cocoa labor experience were trafficked (75% from Burkina Faso and 63% from Mali).[26]

The majority of those who were trafficked had no interaction with police, and 0.5 percent had any contact from institutions that provided social services.[27] Western African nations of Cameroon,[28] Côte d’Ivoire,[29] Ghana[30] and Mali[31] are the 2009 US State Department‘s Tier 2 Watch List for human trafficking in part due to the trafficking of children in cocoa production.

Burkina Faso[32] and Togo[33] are rated at Tier 2 in part due to trafficking for cocoa production.

The blame for the slavery in cocoa production has been passed from one group to the next. Those who sell the children to the farmers claimed they did not see the slavery.[20] The Ivorian government accused foreigners of using and selling slaves[20] and blamed multinational chocolate companies for keeping cocoa prices low and farmers in poverty; it claimed the low prices forced some farmers to use slave labor.[1]

The Ivorian prime minister, Pascal Affi N’Guessan, said the price would need to increase 10 times to ensure a good quality of life for the farmers and their families.[1] Farmers who bought slaves blamed the worldwide cost of cocoa.[20] Cocoa suppliers claimed they cannot manage what happens on the farms.[20] Chocolate companies stated that the suppliers needed to provide cocoa that was not produced by slaves.[20] Consumers did not know that their chocolate was produced using slave labor.[20]

In 2001, due to pressure applied by the US Congress and potential US and UK boycotts,[2] the chocolate manufacturers promised to start eliminating forced child labor.[18] In 2012, Ferrero and Mars promised that they will end cocoa slavery by 2020.[34][35][36]
In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor issued a report on labor conditions around the world[37] in which a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor mentioned 6 countries (among a total of 74) where the cocoa industry employed underage children and indentured laborers. Instances of child labor were reported in 4 of the listed countries namely Cameroon, Ghana, Guniea and Sierra Leone. The others (Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria) resorted to both child labor and forced labor.

Harkin-Engel Protocol[edit]

Main article: Harkin-Engel Protocol

To combat the child slavery in cocoa production, US Representative Eliot Engel introduced a legislative amendment to fund the development of a “no child slavery” label for chocolate products sold in the United States. Senator Tom Harkin proposed an addition to an agriculture bill to label qualified chocolate and cocoa products as “slave free”.[38]

It was approved in the House of Representatives by a vote of 291–115,[39] but before it went to the Senate the chocolate makers hired former senators George Mitchell and Bob Dole to lobby against it,[38] and it did not go to a vote.[39] Instead, the chocolate manufactures agreed with the Congressmen to create the Harkin-Engel Protocol[40] to remove child slavery from the industry by July 2005.[38]

The voluntary agreement was a commitment by the industry groups to develop and implement voluntary standards to certify cocoa produced without the “worst forms of child labor,”[40] and was signed by the heads of major chocolate companies, Congressmen, the Ambassador of Côte d’Ivoire, and others concerned with child labor.[40]

The chocolate makers were to create programs in West Africa to make Africans aware of the consequences of child labor, keeping their children from an education, and child trafficking. The primary incentive for the companies’ voluntary participation would be the addition of a “slave free” label.[38] The 2005 deadline was not met,[41][42] and all parties agreed to a three-year extension of the Protocol.[42][43]

This extension allowed the cocoa industry more time to implement the Protocol including creating a certification system to address the worst forms of child labor for half of the growing areas in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.[43][44]

By 2008, industry had collected data on over half of the areas, as required, but they did not have proper independent verification.[45] In June 2008, the Protocol was extended until the end of 2010. At that time, the industry was required to have full certifications with independent verifications.[43]

The European Union passed a resolution in 2012 to fully implement the Harkin-Engel Protocol and fight child labor in cocoa production.[46]

The resolution was criticized by the International Labor Rights Forum for having no legally binding measures and two major chocolate manufacturers claimed they were addressing the problem.[46]

Timeline of United States military operations

From Wikipedia, the American War

This is a timeline of United States government military operations. The list through 1975 is based on Committee on International Relations (now known as the Committee on Foreign Affairs). Dates show the years in which U.S. government military units participated.

The bolded items are the U.S. government wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. Note that instances where the U.S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, as are Central Intelligence Agency operations.

Extraterritorial and major domestic deployments[edit source | editbeta]

Portions of this list are from the Congressional Research Service report RL30172.[1]

1775–1799[edit source | editbeta]

1775–1783 – American Revolutionary War, an armed struggle for secession from the British Empire by the Thirteen Colonies that would subsequently become the United States.

1776–1777 – Second Cherokee War, a series of armed attacks by the Cherokee to prevent the encroachment of settlers into eastern Tennessee and eastern Kentucky; under British rule, this land had been preserved as native territory.

1776–1794 – Chickamauga Wars, a continuation of the Second Cherokee War that included a larger number of native tribes attempt to halt the expansion of settlers into Kentucky and Tennessee

1785–1795 – Northwest Indian War, a series of battles with various native tribes in present-day Ohio. The goal of the campaign was to affirm American sovereignty over the region and to create increased opportunities for settlement.

1786–1787 – Shays’ Rebellion, a Western Massachusetts debtor’s revolt over a credit squeeze that had financially devastated many farmers. The federal government was fiscally unable to raise an army to assist the state militia in combating the uprising; the weakness of the national government bolstered the arguments in favor of replacing the Articles of Confederation with an updated governmental framework.

1791–1794 – Whiskey Rebellion, a series of protests against the institution of a federal tax on the distillation of spirits as a revenue source for repaying the nation’s war bonds. The revolt was centered upon southwestern Pennsylvania, although violence occurred throughout the Trans-Appalachian region.

1798–1800 – Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France over American default on its war debt. An additional mitigating factor was the continuation of American trade with Britain, with whom their former French allies were at war. This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic city of Puerto Plata, where U.S. Marines captured a French vessel under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.[1]

1799–1800 – Fries’s Rebellion, a string of protests against the enactment of new real estate taxes to pay for the Quasi-War. Hostilities were concentrated in the communities of the Pennsylvania Dutch.

1800–1809[edit source | editbeta]

1801–1805 – First Barbary War, a series of naval battles in the Mediterranean Sea against the Kingdom of Tripoli, a quasi-independent state of the Ottoman Empire. Action was in response to the capture of numerous American ships by the infamous Barbary pirates. The federal government rejected the Tripolitan request for an annual tribute to guarantee safe passage, and an American naval blockade ensued. After the seizure of the USS Philadelphia, American forces under William Eaton invaded coastal cities. A peace treaty resulted in the payment of a ransom for the return of captured American soldiers and only temporarily eased hostilities.[1]

1806 – Action in Spanish Mexico – The platoon under Captain Zebulon Pike invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from General James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present-day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.[RL30172]

1806–10 – Action in the Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Captain John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.[1]

1810–1819[edit source | editbeta]

1810 – West Florida (Spanish territory). Governor William C.C. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of President James Madison, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.[RL30172]

1812 – Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by President James Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by General George Mathews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.[RL30172]

1812–15 – War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war against the United Kingdom. Among the issues leading to the war were British impressment of American sailors into the Royal Navy, interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France. [RL30172]

1813 – West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. Thus U.S. troops advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.[RL30172]

1813–14 – Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). U.S. forces built a fort on the island of Nuku Hiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.[RL30172]

1814 – Spanish Florida. General Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British forces.[RL30172]

1814–25 – Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatán. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822, Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.[RL30172]

1815 – Algiers. The Second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statute. A large fleet under Captain Stephen Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.[RL30172]

1815 – Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Captain Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.[RL30172]

1816 – Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Negro Fort, which harbored fugitive slaves making raids into United States territory.[RL30172]

1816–18 – Spanish Florida – First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under General Jackson and General Edmund P. Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United States.[RL30172]

1817 – Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President James Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters. This episode in Florida’s history became known as the Amelia Island Affair.[RL30172]

1818 – Oregon. The USS Ontario dispatched from Washington, which made a landing at the mouth of the Columbia River to assert US claims. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.[RL30172] Subsequently, American and British claims to the Oregon Country were resolved with the Oregon Treaty of 1846.[RL30172]

1820–1829[edit source | editbeta]

1820–23 – Africa. Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress. [RL30172][Slave Traffic]

1822 – Cuba. United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.[RL30172]

1823 – Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.[RL30172]

1824 – Cuba. In October the USS Porpoise landed sailors near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.[RL30172]

1824 – Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.[RL30172]

1825 – Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.[RL30172]

1827 – Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the Mediterranean islands of Argenteire, Myconos, and Andros.[RL30172]

1830–1839[edit source | editbeta]

1831–32 – Falkland Islands. Captain Silas Duncan of the USS Lexington attacked, looted and burned the Argentine town of Puerto Soledad in Malvinas islands. This was in response to the capture of three American sailing vessels which were detained after ignoring orders to stop depredation of local fishing resources without permission from the Argentine government. Subsequently the islands were invaded by the UK in 1833 remaining to this day.[RL30172]

1832 – Attack on Quallah Battoo, Sumatra, Indonesia – February 6–9. U.S. forces under Commodore John Downes aboard the frigate USS Potomac landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American cargo ship Friendship.[RL30172]

1833 – Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.[RL30172]

1835–36 – Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.[RL30172]

1835–42 Florida Territory. United States Navy supports the Army’s efforts at quelling uprisings and attacks on civilians by Seminole Indians. Government’s efforts to relocate the Seminoles to west of the Mississippi are hindered by 7 years of war.

1838 – The Caroline affair on Navy Island, Canada. After the failure of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 favoring Canadian democracy and independence from the British Empire; William Lyon Mackenzie and his rebels fled to Navy Island where they declared the Republic of Canada. American sympathizers sent supplies on the SS Caroline, which was intercepted by the British and set ablaze, after killing one American. It was falsely reported that dozens of Americans were killed as they were trapped on board, and American forces retaliated by burning a British steamer while it was in U.S. waters.

1838–39 – Sumatra (Indonesia). December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on American shipping.[RL30172]

1840–1849[edit source | editbeta]

1840 – Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties.[RL30172]

1841 – McKean Island (Drummond Island/Taputenea), Gilbert Islands (Kingsmill Group), Pacific Ocean. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.[RL30172]

1841 – Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu.[RL30172]

1842 – Mexico. Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.[RL30172]

1843 – China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.[RL30172]

1843 – Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory Coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.[RL30172]

1844 – Mexico. President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.[RL30172]

1846–48 – Mexican-American War On May 13, 1846, the United States recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.

The war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848. The Treaty gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received US $18,250,000[34] ($459,127,885 today) —less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities. [RL30172]

1849 – Smyrna (İzmir, Turkey). In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.[RL30172]

1850–1859[edit source | editbeta]

1851 – Ottoman Empire. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levantine) coast.[RL30172]

1851 – Johanna Island (modern Anjouan, east of Africa). August. Forces from the U.S. sloop-of-war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.[RL30172]

1852–53 – Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution.[RL30172]

1853 – Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. US forces landed to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances[RL30172]

1853–54 – Japan. Commodore Matthew Perry and his expedition made a display of force leading to the “opening of Japan.”[RL30172]

1853–54 – Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands (Japan). Commodore Matthew Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.[RL30172]

1854 – China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.[RL30172]

1854 – Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.[RL30172]

1855 – China. May 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected American interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.[RL30172]

1855 – Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek reparations for attacks on American residents and seamen.[RL30172]

1855 – Uruguay. November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.[RL30172]

1856 – Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.[RL30172]

1856 – China. October 22 to December 6. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.[RL30172]

1857–58 – Utah War. The Utah War was a dispute between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. The Mormons and Washington each sought control over the government of the territory, with the national government victorious. The confrontation between the Mormon militia and the U.S. Army involved some destruction of property, but no actual battles between the contending military forces.

1857 – Nicaragua. April to May, November to December. In May Commander Charles Henry Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, self-proclaimed president of Nicaragua, who was losing control of the country to forces financed by his former business partner, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels USS Saratoga, USS Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding‘s act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.[RL30172]

1858 – Uruguay. January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.[RL30172]

1858 – Fiji Islands. October 6 to 16. A marine expedition with the USS Vandalia killed 14 natives and burned 115 huts in retaliation for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.[RL30172] [Vandalia 1] [Vandalia 2]

1858–59 – Ottoman Empire. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere “to remind the authorities (of the Ottoman Empire) of the power of the United States.”[RL30172]

1859 – Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Paraná River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.[RL30172]

1859 – Mexico. Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican nationalist Juan Cortina.[RL30172] [1859 Mexico]

1859 – China. July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai.[RL30172]

1860–1869[edit source | editbeta]

1860 – Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.[RL30172]

1860 – Colombia, Bay of Panama. September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.[RL30172]

1861–65 – American Civil War A major war between the United States (the Union) and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America.

1863 – Japan. July 16. Naval battle of Shimonoseki. The USS Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.[RL30172]

1864 – Japan. July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.[RL30172]

1864 – Japan. September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.[RL30172]

1865 – Panama. March 9 and 10. US forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.[RL30172]

1865–77 Southern United StatesReconstruction following the American Civil War. The South is divided into five Union occupation districts under the Reconstruction Act.

1866 – Mexico. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoros, on the border state of Tamaulipas. After three days he was ordered by US Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.[RL30172]

1866 – China. June 20 to July 7. US forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.[RL30172]

1867 – Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

1867 – Formosa (island of Taiwan) June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.

1868 – Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata). – February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. US forces were landed to protect American interests during a civil war (Boshin War) in Japan .[RL30172]

1868 – Uruguay. February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. US forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.[RL30172]

1868 – Colombia. April. US forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.[RL30172]

1870–1879[edit source | editbeta]

1870 – Battle of Boca Teacapan. June 17 and 18. US forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan in Mexico.[RL30172]

1870 – Kingdom of Hawaii. September 21. US forces placed the American flag at half-mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.[RL30172]

1871 – Korea. Shinmiyangyo. June 10 to 12. A US naval force attacked and captured five forts to force stalled negotiations on trade agreements and to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for executing the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner (which in turn happened because the crew had stolen food and kidnapped a Korean official), and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. [RL30172]

1873 – Colombia (Bay of Panama). May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.[RL30172]

1873–96 – Mexico. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands.[RL30172]

1874 – Honolulu Courthouse Riot. February 12 to 20. Detachments from American vessels were landed to protect the interests of Americans living in the Kingdom of Hawaii during the coronation of a new king.[RL30172]

1876 – Mexico. May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of Matamoros, Mexico, temporarily while it was without other government.[RL30172]

1878 – Lincoln County, New Mexico. July 15 – July 19. During the Battle of Lincoln (1878) (part of the Lincoln County War) 150 cavalry-men arrived from Fort Stanton, under the command of Lieutenant George Smith (later Colonel Nathan Dudley) to assist the Murphy-Dolan Faction in attacking the Lincoln County Regulators vigilante group. 5 dead, 8-28 wounded

1880–1889[edit source | editbeta]

1882 – Egyptian Expedition. July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.[RL30172]

1885 – Panama (Colón). January 18 and 19. US forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colón and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity (see Burning of Colón).[RL30172]

1888 – Korea. June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.[RL30172]

1888 – Haiti. December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.[RL30172]

1888–89 – Samoan crisis; First Samoan Civil War; Second Samoan Civil War. November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. US forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.[RL30172]

1889 – Kingdom of Hawaii. July 30 and 31. US forces at Honolulu protected the interests of Americans living in Hawaii during an American led revolution.[RL30172]

1890–1899[edit source | editbeta]

1890 – Argentina. A naval party landed to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.[RL30172]

1890 – South Dakota. December 29. Soldiers of the US Army 7th Cavalry killed 178 Sioux Amerindians following an incident over a disarmament-inspection at a Lakota Sioux encampment near Wounded Knee Creek. 89 other Amerinds were injured, 150 were reported missing; Army casualties were 25 killed, 39 wounded.[citation needed]

1891 – Haiti. US forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.[RL30172]

1891 – Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations. July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.[RL30172]

1891 – Itata Incident. US and European naval forces intercepted and detained a shipment of arms sent to the Congressionalist forces in the Chilean Civil War.

1891 – Chile. August 28 to 30. US forces protected the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaíso.[RL30172]

1892 – Homestead strike, On July 6. Striking miners attack Pinkerton National Detective Agency agents attempting to break the strike by bringing non-union workers to the mine. 6,000 Pennsylvania state militiamen sent to reinstate law and order. 16 dead, 27-47 wounded

1892 – Wyoming. April 11 to April 13. U.S. Cavalry sent to breakup a gun battle at the TA Ranch. Johnson County War

1893 – Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom. January 16 to April 1. Marines landed in Hawaii, ostensibly to protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by President Cleveland, and eventually the United States apologized in 1993.[RL30172]

1894 – Rio de Janeiro Affair. January. A display of naval force sought to protect American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.[RL30172]

1894 – Nicaragua. July 6 to August 7. US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.[RL30172]

1894–95 – China. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the First Sino-Japanese War.[RL30172]

1894–95 – China. A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.[RL30172]

1894–96 – Korea. July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.[RL30172]

1895 – Colombia. March 8 and 9. US forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.[RL30172]

1896 – Nicaragua. May 2 to 4. US forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest.[RL30172]

1898 – Nicaragua. February 7 and 8. US forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.[RL30172]

1898 – Spanish-American War On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection, the Cuban War of Independence against Spanish rule and the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana.[RL30172]

1898–99 – Samoa. Second Samoan Civil War a conflict that reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States were locked in dispute over who should have control over the Samoan island chain.

1898–99 – China. November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.[RL30172]

1899 – Nicaragua. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.[RL30172]

1899–1913 – Philippine Islands. Philippine-American War US forces protected American interests following the war with Spain, defeating Filipino revolutionaries seeking immediate national independence.[RL30172] The U.S. government declared the “insurgency” officially over in 1902, when the Filipino leadership generally accepted American rule. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions of the war.[2]

1900–1909[edit source | editbeta]

1900 – China. May 24 to September 28. Boxer Rebellion American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer uprising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.[RL30172]

1901 – Colombia (State of Panama). November 20 to December 4. (See: Separation of Panama from Colombia) US forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.[RL30172]

1902 – Colombia. – April 16 to 23. US forces protected American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.[RL30172]

1902 – Colombia (State of Panama). September 17 to November 18. The United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.[RL30172]

1903 – Honduras. March 23 to 30 or 31. US forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortes during a period of revolutionary activity.[RL30172]

1903 – Dominican Republic. March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak.[RL30172]

1903 – Syria. September 7 to 12. US forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when a local Muslim uprising was feared.[RL30172]

1903–04 – Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Twenty-five Marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.[RL30172]

1903–14 – Panama. US forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914 to guard American interests.[RL30172]

1904 – Dominican Republic. January 2 to February 11. American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.[RL30172]

1904 – Tangier, Morocco. “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead.” A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.[RL30172]

1904 – Panama. November 17 to 24. U.S forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.[RL30172]

1904–05 – Korea. January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A guard of Marines was sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.[RL30172]

1906–09 – Cuba. September 1906 to January 23, 1909. US forces sought to protect interests and re-establish a government after revolutionary activity.[RL30172]

1907 – Honduras. March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Pedro Sula, Laguna and Choloma.[RL30172]

1910–1919[edit source | editbeta]

1910 – Nicaragua. May 19 to September 4, 1910. Occupation of Nicaragua U.S. forces protected American interests at Bluefields.[RL30172]

1911 – Honduras. January 26. American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.[RL30172]

1911 – China. As the Tongmenghui-led Xinhai Revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow. Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.[RL30172]

1912 – Honduras. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortes. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action.[RL30172]

1912 – Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Panama Canal Zone.[RL30172]

1912 – Cuba. June 5 to August 5. U.S. forces protected American interests in the province of Oriente and in Havana.[RL30172]

1912 – China. August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson. U.S. forces protected Americans and American interests during the Xinhai Revolution.[RL30172]

1912 – Turkey. November 18 to December 3. U.S. forces guarded the American legation at Constantinople during the First Balkan War[RL30172]

1912–25 – Nicaragua. August to November 1912. U.S. forces protected American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.[RL30172]

1912–41 – China. The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.[RL30172]

1913 – Mexico. September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.[RL30172]

1914 – Haiti. January 29 to February 9, February 20 and 21, October 19. Intermittently U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.[RL30172] The specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to “protect American and foreign” interests.[citation needed]

1914 – Dominican Republic. June and July. During a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.[RL30172]

1914–17 – Mexico. Tampico Affair led to Occupation of Veracruz, Mexico. Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed the Tampico Affair and Villa’s raids . Also Pancho Villa Expedition) – an abortive military operation conducted by the United States Army against the military forces of Francisco “Pancho” Villa from 1916 to 1917 and included capture of Vera Cruz. On March 19, 1915 on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, and with tacit consent by Venustiano Carranza General John J. Pershing led an invasion force of 10,000 men into Mexico to capture Villa.[RL30172]

1915–34 – Haiti. July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. United States occupation of Haiti 1915–1934 US forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability.[RL30172] During the initial entrance into Haiti, the specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to “protect American and foreign” interests.[citation needed]

1916 – China. American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.[RL30172]

1916–24 – Dominican Republic. May 1916 to September 1924. Occupation of the Dominican Republic American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.[RL30172]

1917 – China. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.[RL30172]

1917–18 – World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany’s submarine warfare against neutral shipping and the Zimmermann Telegram.[RL30172]

1917–22 – Cuba. U.S. forces protected American interests during insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.[RL30172]

1918–19 – Mexico. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U.S. troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales, The Battle of Ambos Nogales. The incident began when German spies plotted an attack with Mexican soldiers on Nogales Arizona. The fighting began when a Mexican officer shot and killed a U.S. soldier on American soil. A full scale battle then ensued, ending with a Mexican surrender.[RL30172]

1918–20 – Panama. U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.[RL30172]

1918–20 – Soviet Union. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements. [RL30172] For details, see the American Expeditionary Force Siberia and the American Expeditionary Force North Russia.

1919 – Dalmatia (Croatia). U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.[RL30172]

1919 – Turkey. Marines from the USS Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.[RL30172]

1919 – Honduras. September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.[RL30172]

1920–1929[edit source | editbeta]

1920 – China. March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.[RL30172]

1920 – Guatemala. April 9 to 27. U.S. forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.[RL30172]

1920–22 – Russia (Siberia). February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.[RL30172]

1921 – Panama and Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.[RL30172]

1922 – Turkey. September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish nationalists entered İzmir (Smyrna.[RL30172]

1922–23 – China. April 1922 to November 1923. Marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.[RL30172]

1924 – Honduras. February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. U.S. forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.[RL30172]

1924 – China. – September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.[RL30172]

1925 – China. January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.[RL30172]

1925 – Honduras. April 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.[RL30172]

1925 – Panama. October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests. [RL30172]

1926–33 – Nicaragua. May 7 to June 5, 1926, and August 27, 1926, to January 3, 1933. The coup d’état of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.[RL30172]

1926 – China. August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.[RL30172]

1927 – China. February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and Marines to be increased. In March, a naval guard was stationed at American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of Marines and naval forces were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.[RL30172]

1930–1939[edit source | editbeta]

1932 – China. American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.[RL30172]

1932 – United States. “Bonus Army” of 17,000 WWI veterans plus 20,000 family cleared from Washington and then Anacostia flats “Hooverville” by 3rd Cavalry and 12th Infantry Regiments under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, July 28.

1933 – Cuba. During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.[RL30172]

1934 – China. Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.[RL30172]

1940–1944[edit source | editbeta]

1940 – Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, – Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained under lease by negotiation with the United Kingdom. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases but were under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement.[RL30172]

1941 – Greenland. Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.[RL30172]

1941 – Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November, the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Suriname.[RL30172]

1941 – Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its government replacing British troops, for strategic reasons.[RL30172]

1941 – Germany. Sometime in the spring, the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July, U.S. warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, in response to the October 31, 1941 sinking of the USS Reuben James, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect U.S. military aid to Britain. [RL30172]

1941–45 – World War II. On December 7, 1941, the United States declared war with Japan in response to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Germany declared war against the United States.[RL30172]

1945–1949[edit source | editbeta]

1945 – China. In October 50,000 U.S. Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000 U.S. forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.[RL30172]

1945–49 – Occupation of part of Germany.

1945–55 – Occupation of part of Austria.

1945–52 – Occupation of Japan.

1944–46 – Temporary reoccupation of the Philippines during World War II and in preparation for previously scheduled independence.[citation needed]

1945–47 – U.S. Marines garrisoned in mainland China to oversee the removal of Soviet and Japanese forces after World War II.[3]

1945–49 – Post-World War II occupation of South Korea; North Korean insurgency in Republic of Korea[4]

1946 – Trieste (Italy). President Truman ordered the increase of US troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia..[citation needed] Earlier U.S. naval units had been sent to the scene.[RL30172] Later the Free Territory of Trieste, Zone A.

1947 – Greece. U.S. Marines land in Athens and assist in the re-establishment of monarchy and the arrest of Greek Communists.

1948 – Jerusalem (British Mandate). A Marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the U.S. Consul General.[RL30172]

1948 – Berlin. Berlin Airlift After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the U.S., British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.[RL30172]

1948–49 – China. Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.[RL30172]

1950–1959[edit source | editbeta]

Map of military operations since 1950

1950–53 – Korean War. The United States responded to North Korean invasion of South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions. US forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. Over 36,600 US military were killed in action.[RL30172]

1950–55 – Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman ordered the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.[RL30172]

1954–55 – China. Naval units evacuated U.S. civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands.[RL30172]

1955–64 – Vietnam. First military advisors sent to Vietnam on 12 Feb 1955. By 1964, US troop levels had grown to 21,000. On 7 August 1964, US Congress approved Gulf of Tonkin resolution affirming “All necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States. . .to prevent further aggression. . . (and) assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asian Collective Defense Treaty (SEATO) requesting assistance. . .”[Vietnam timeline]

1956 – Egypt. A marine battalion evacuated US nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.[RL30172]

1958 – Lebanon. Lebanon crisis of 1958 Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of President Camille Chamoun to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President’s action was supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.[RL30172]

1959–60 – The Caribbean. Second Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect U.S. nationals following the Cuban revolution.[RL30172]

1959–75 – Vietnam War. U.S. military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became weaker. After citing what he falsely termed were attacks on U.S. destroyers, in what came to be known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing U.S. determination to support “freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia.” Congress responded with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving President Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia. Following this resolution, and following a communist attack on a U.S. installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.[RL30172]

1960–1969[edit source | editbeta]

1962 – Thailand. The Third Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30, the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.[RL30172]

1962 – Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis On October 22, President Kennedy instituted a “quarantine” on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against nations in the Western Hemisphere would bring about U.S. nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.[RL30172]

1962–75 – Laos. From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos.[RL30172]

1964 – Congo (Zaire). The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.[RL30172]

1965 – Invasion of Dominican Republic. Operation Power Pack. The United States intervened to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sent 20,000 U.S. troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.[RL30172] A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.

1967 – Israel. The USS Liberty incident, whereupon a United States Navy Technical Research Ship was attacked June 8, 1967 by Israeli armed forces, killing 34 and wounding more than 170 U.S. crew members.

1967 – Congo (Zaire). The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.[RL30172]

1968 – Laos & Cambodia. U.S. starts secret bombing campaign against targets along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the sovereign nations of Cambodia and Laos. The bombings last at least two years. (See Operation Commando Hunt)

1970–1979[edit source | editbeta]

1970 – Cambodian Campaign. U.S. troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked U.S. and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of Vietnamization.[RL30172]

1972 – North Vietnam – Christmas bombing Operation Linebacker II (not mentioned in RL30172, but an operation leading to peace negotiations). The operation was conducted from 18–29 December 1972. It was a bombing of the cities Hanoi and Haiphong by B-52 bombers.

1973 – Operation Nickel Grass, a strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

1974 – Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated U.S. civilians during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.[RL30172]

1975 – Evacuation from Vietnam. Operation Frequent Wind. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported U.S. naval vessels, helicopters, and Marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam.[RL30172]

1975 – Evacuation from Cambodia. Operation Eagle Pull. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of U.S. citizens from Cambodia.[RL30172]

1975 – South Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 Marines had evacuated about 1,400 U.S. citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones in and around the U.S. Embassy, Saigon and Tan Son Nhut Airport.[RL30172]

1975 – Cambodia. Mayagüez Incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military forces to retake the SS Mayagüez, a merchant vessel which was seized from Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.[RL30172]

1976 – Lebanon. On July 22 and 23, 1976, helicopters from five U.S. naval vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.[RL30172]

1976 – Korea. Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.[RL30172]

1978 – Zaire (Congo). From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.[RL30172]

1980–1989[edit source | editbeta]

1980 – Iran. Operation Eagle Claw. On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six U.S. transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the American hostages in Iran.

1980 – U.S. Army and Air Force units arrive in the Sinai in September as part of “Operation Bright Star”. They are there to train with Egyptians armed forces as part of the Camp David peace accords signed in 1979. Elements of the 101st Airborne Division, ( 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry) and Air Force MAC (Military Airlift Command) units are in theater for four months and are the first U.S. military forces in the region since World War II.

1981 – El Salvador. After a guerrilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional U.S. military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.[RL30172]

1981 – Libya. First Gulf of Sidra Incident On August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier USS Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.[RL30172]

1982 – Sinai. On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational Force and Observers Resolution, Public Law 97-132.[RL30172]

1982 – Lebanon. Multinational Force in Lebanon. On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 800 Marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.[RL30172]

1982–83 – Lebanon. On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty. On September 29, 1983, Congress passed the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L. 98-119) authorizing the continued participation for eighteen months.[RL30172]

1983 – Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.[RL30172]

1983 – Grenada. Operation Urgent Fury. Citing the increased threat of Soviet and Cuban influence and noting the development of an international airport following a coup d’état and alignment with the Soviets and Cuba, the U.S. invades the island nation of Grenada.[RL30172]

1983–89 – Honduras. In July 1983, the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed U.S. military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.[RL30172]

1983 – Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.[RL30172]

1984 – Persian Gulf. On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a U.S. AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a U.S. KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.[RL30172]

1985 – Italy. On October 10, 1985, U.S. Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.[RL30172]

1986 – Libya. Action in the Gulf of Sidra (1986) On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported on March 24 and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles.[RL30172]

1986 – Libya. Operation El Dorado Canyon. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in the Libyan capitol of Tripoli, claiming that Libyan leader Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi was responsible for a bomb attack at a German disco that killed two U.S. soldiers.[RL30172]

1986 – Bolivia. U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.[RL30172]

1987 – Persian Gulf. USS Stark was struck on May 17 by two Exocet antiship missiles fired from an Iraqi F-1 Mirage during the Iran-Iraq War, killing 37 U.S. Navy sailors.

1987 – Persian Gulf. Operation Nimble Archer. Attacks on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf by United States Navy forces on October 19. The attack was a response to Iran’s October 16, 1987 attack on the MV Sea Isle City, a reflagged Kuwaiti oil tanker at anchor off Kuwait, with a Silkworm missile.

1987–88 – Persian Gulf. Operation Earnest Will – After the Iran-Iraq War (the Tanker War phase) resulted in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased U.S. joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Persian Gulf to protect them from Iraqi and Iranian attacks. President Reagan reported that U.S. ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 21 (Iran Ajr), October 8, and October 19, 1987 and April 18 (Operation Praying Mantis), July 3, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.[RL30172] It was the largest naval convoy operation since World War II.[5]

1987–88 – Persian Gulf. Operation Prime Chance was a United States Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran-Iraq War. The operation took place roughly at the same time as Operation Earnest Will.

1988 – Persian Gulf. Operation Praying Mantis was the April 18, 1988 action waged by U.S. naval forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf and the subsequent damage to an American warship.

1988 – Honduras. Operation Golden Pheasant was an emergency deployment of U.S. troops to Honduras in 1988, as a result of threatening actions by the forces of the (then socialist) Nicaraguans.

1988 – USS Vincennes shoot down of Iran Air Flight 655

1988 – Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as the United States increased pressure on Panamanian head of state General Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to “further safeguard the canal, US lives, property and interests in the area.” The forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military personnel already in the Panama Canal Zone.[RL30172]

1989 – Libya. Second Gulf of Sidra Incident On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.[RL30172]

1989 – Panama. On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega’s disregard of the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 1,000 U.S. forces already in the area.[RL30172]

1989 – Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50–100 U.S. military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2–12 persons to train troops in the three countries.[RL30172]

1989 – Philippines. Operation Classic Resolve. On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1, Air Force fighters from Clark Air Base in Luzon had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay to protect the United States Embassy in Manila.[RL30172]

1989–90 – Panama. Operation Just Cause. On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American citizens and bring General Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.[RL30172] Around 200 Panamanian civilians were reported killed. The Panamanian head of state, General Manuel Noriega, was captured and brought to the U.S.

1990–1999[edit source | editbeta]

1990 – Liberia: On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.[RL30172]

1990 – Saudi Arabia: On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he launched Operation Desert Shield by ordering the forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military option.[RL30172]American hostages being held in Iran.[RL30172] Staging point for the troops was primarily Bagram air field.

1991 – Iraq and Kuwait. Operation Desert Storm: On January 16, 1991, in response to the refusal by Iraq to leave Kuwait, U.S. and Coalition aircraft attacked Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait in conjunction with a coalition of allies and under United Nations Security Council resolutions. In February 24, 1991, U.S.-led United Nation (UN) forces launched a ground offensive that finally drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait within 100 hours. Combat operations ended on February 28, 1991, when President Bush declared a ceasefire.[RL30172]

1991–1996 – Iraq. Operation Provide Comfort: Delivery of humanitarian relief and military protection for Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq during the 1991 uprising, by a small Allied ground force based in Turkey which began in April 1991.

1991 – Iraq: On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.[RL30172]

1991 – Zaire: On September 25–27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Kinshasa, Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. American planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and hauled evacuated American citizens.[RL30172]

1992 – Sierra Leone. Operation Silver Anvil: Following the April 29 coup that overthrew President Joseph Saidu Momoh, a United States European Command (USEUCOM) Joint Special Operations Task Force evacuated 438 people (including 42 Third Country nationals) on May 3. Two Air Mobility Command (AMC) C-141s flew 136 people from Freetown, Sierra Leone, to the Rhein-Main Air Base in Germany and nine C-130 sorties carried another 302 people to Dakar, Senegal.[RL30172]

1992–1996 – Bosnia and Herzegovina: Operation Provide Promise was a humanitarian relief operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars, from July 2, 1992, to January 9, 1996, which made it the longest running humanitarian airlift in history.[6]

1992 – Kuwait: On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.[RL30172]

1992–2003 – Iraq. Iraqi no-fly zones: The U.S., United Kingdom, and its Gulf War allies declared and enforced “no-fly zones” over the majority of sovereign Iraqi airspace, prohibiting Iraqi flights in zones in southern Iraq and northern Iraq, and conducting aerial reconnaissance and bombings. Often, Iraqi forces continued throughout a decade by firing on U.S. and British aircraft patrolling no-fly zones.(See also Operation Northern Watch, Operation Southern Watch) [RL30172]

1992–1995 – Somalia. Operation Restore Hope. Somali Civil War: On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a UN Security Council Resolution in support for UNITAF. The operation came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II).(See also Battle of Mogadishu)[RL30172]

1993-1995 – Bosnia. Operation Deny Flight: On April 12, 1993, in response to a United Nations Security Council passage of Resolution 816, U.S. and NATO enforced the no-fly zone over the Bosnian airspace, prohibited all unauthorized flights and allowed to “take all necessary measures to ensure compliance with [the no-fly zone restrictions].”

1993 – Macedonia: On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 U.S. soldiers to the Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.[RL30172]

1994: Bosnia. Banja Luka incident: NATO become involved in the first combat situation when NATO U.S. Air Force F-16 jets shot down four of the six Bosnian Serb J-21 Jastreb single-seat light attack jets for violating UN-mandated no-fly zone.

1994–1995 – Haiti. Operation Uphold Democracy: U.S. ships had begun embargo against Haiti. Up to 20,000 U.S. military troops were later deployed to Haiti to restore democratically-elected Haiti President Jean-Bertrand Aristide from a military regime which came into power in 1991 after a major coup.[RL30172]

1994 – Macedonia: On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. contingent in Macedonia had been increased by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.[RL30172]

1995 – Bosnia. Operation Deliberate Force: In August 30, 1995, U.S. and NATO aircraft began a major bombing campaign of Bosnian Serb Army in response to a Bosnian Serb mortar attack on a Sarajevo market that killed 37 people in August 28, 1995. This operation lasted until September 20, 1995. The air campaign along with a combined allied ground force of Muslim and Croatian Army against Serb positions led to a Dayton agreement in December 1995 with the signing of warring factions of the war. As part of Operation Joint Endeavor, U.S. and NATO dispatched the Implementation Force (IFOR) peacekeepers to Bosnia to uphold the Dayton agreement.[RL30172]

1996 – Liberia. Operation Assured Response: On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported that on April 9, 1996 due to the “deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to American citizens” in Liberia he had ordered U.S. military forces to evacuate from that country “private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound….”[RL30172]

1996 – Central African Republic. Operation Quick Response: On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported the deployment of U.S. military personnel to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of “private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. government employees”, and to provide “enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui.”[RL30172] United States Marine Corps elements of Joint Task Force Assured Response, responding in nearby Liberia, provided security to the embassy and evacuated 448 people, including between 190 and 208 Americans. The last Marines left Bangui on June 22.

1996-Kuwait. Operation Desert Strike: American Air Strikes in the north to protect the Kurdish population against the Iraqi Army attacks. U.S. deploys 5,000 soldiers from the 1ST Cavalry Division at Ft Hood Texas in response to Iraqi attacks on the Kurdish people.[citation needed]

1996 – Bosnia. Operation Joint Guard: In December 21, 1996, U.S. and NATO established the SFOR peacekeepers to replace the IFOR in enforcing the peace under the Dayton agreement.

1997 – Albania. Operation Silver Wake: On March 13, 1997, U.S. military forces were used to evacuate certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens from Tirana, Albania.[RL30172]

1997 – Congo and Gabon: On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.[RL30172]

1997 – Sierra Leone: On May 29 and May 30, 1997, U.S. military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens.[RL30172]

1997 – Cambodia: On July 11, 1997, In an effort to ensure the security of American citizens in Cambodia during a period of domestic conflict there, a Task Force of about 550 U.S. military personnel were deployed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand for possible evacuations. [RL30172]

1998 – Iraq. Operation Desert Fox: U.S. and British forces conduct a major four-day bombing campaign from December 16–19, 1998 on Iraqi targets.[RL30172]

1998 – Guinea-Bissau. Operation Shepherd Venture: On June 10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the U.S. Embassy, President Clinton deployed a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to evacuate from the city of Bissau.[RL30172]

1998–1999 – Kenya and Tanzania: U.S. military personnel were deployed to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombing of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.[RL30172]

1998 – Afghanistan and Sudan. Operation Infinite Reach: On August 20, President Clinton ordered a cruise missile attack against two suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical factory in Sudan.[RL30172]

1998 – Liberia: On September 27, 1998, America deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 U.S. military personnel to increase the security force at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia. [1] [RL30172]

1999–2001 – East Timor: Limited number of U.S. military forces deployed with the United Nations-mandated International Force for East Timor restore peace to East Timor.[RL30172]

1999 – Serbia. Operation Allied Force: U.S. and NATO aircraft began a major bombing of Serbia and Serb positions in Kosovo in March 24, 1999, during the Kosovo War due to the refusal by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to end repression against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. This operation ended in June 10, 1999, when Milosevic agreed to pull out his troops out of Kosovo. In response to the situation in Kosovo, NATO dispatched the KFOR peacekeepers to secure the peace under UNSC Resolution 1244.[RL30172]

2000–2009[edit source | editbeta]

  • 2000 – Sierra Leone. On May 12, 2000 a U.S. Navy patrol craft deployed to Sierra Leone to support evacuation operations from that country if needed.[RL30172]
  • 2000 – Nigeria. Special Forces troops are sent to Nigeria to lead a training mission in the county.[7]
  • 2000 – Yemen. On October 12, 2000, after the USS Cole attack in the port of Aden, Yemen, military personnel were deployed to Aden.[RL30172]
  • 2000 – East Timor. On February 25, 2000, a small number of U.S. military personnel were deployed to support the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). [RL30172]
  • 2001 – On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a United States Navy EP-3E ARIES II signals surveillance aircraft and a People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and the People’s Republic of China called the Hainan Island incident.
  • 2002 – Philippines. OEF-Philippines. January 2002 U.S. “combat-equipped and combat support forces” have been deployed to the Philippines to train with, assist and advise the Philippines’ Armed Forces in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities.”[RL30172]
  • 2002 – Côte d’Ivoire. On September 25, 2002, in response to a rebellion in Côte d’Ivoire, U.S. military personnel went into Côte d’Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens from Bouake.[8]

[RL30172]

  • 2003–2011 – War in Iraq. Operation Iraqi Freedom. March 20, 2003. The United States leads a coalition that includes Britain, Australia and Spain to invade Iraq with the stated goal being “to disarm Iraq in pursuit of peace, stability, and security both in the Gulf region and in the United States.”[RL30172]
  • 2003 – Liberia. Second Liberian Civil War. On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported that on June 8 he had sent about 35 U.S. Marines into Monrovia, Liberia, to help secure the U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.[RL30172]
  • 2003 – Georgia and Djibouti. “US combat equipped and support forces” had been deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities.”[9]
  • 2004 – Haiti. 2004 Haïti rebellion occurs. The US first sent 55 combat equipped military personnel to augment the U.S. Embassy security forces there and to protect American citizens and property in light. Later 200 additional US combat-equipped, military personnel were sent to prepare the way for a UN Multinational Interim Force, MINUSTAH.[RL30172]
  • 2004 – War on Terrorism: U.S. anti-terror related activities were underway in Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea.[10]
  • 2005–06 – Pakistan. President Bush deploys troops from US Army Air Cav Brigades to provide Humanitarian relief to far remote villages in the Kashmir mountain ranges of Pakistan stricken by a massive earthquake.
  • 2007 – Somalia. Battle of Ras Kamboni. On January 8, 2007, while the conflict between the Islamic Courts Union and the Transitional Federal Government continues, an AC-130 gunship conducts an aerial strike on a suspected al-Qaeda operative, along with other Islamist fighters, on Badmadow Island near Ras Kamboni in southern Somalia.[13]
  • 2008 – South Ossetia, Georgia. Helped Georgia humanitarian aid,[14] helped to transport Georgian forces from Iraq during the conflict. In the past, the US has provided training and weapons to Georgia.

2010–present[edit source | editbeta]

  • 2010-11 War in Iraq. Operation New Dawn. On February 17, 2010, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that as of September 1, 2010, the name “Operation Iraqi Freedom” would be replaced by “Operation New Dawn”. This coincides with the reduction of American troops to 50,000.
  • 2011 – Libya. Operation Odyssey Dawn. Coalition forces enforcing U.N. Security Council Resolution 1973 with bombings of Libyan forces.
  • 2011 – War on Terrorism. Osama Bin Laden is killed by U.S. military forces in Pakistan as part of Operation Neptune Spear.
  • 2011 – Drone strikes on al-Shabab militants begin in Somalia.[15] This marks the 6th nation in which such strikes have been carried out, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Yemen and Libya.[citation needed]
  • 2011 – Uganda. US Combat troops sent in as advisers to Uganda.[16]
  • 2012 – Jordan. 150 US troops deployed to Jordan to help it contain the Syrian Civil War within Syria’s borders.
  • 2012 – Turkey. 400 troops and two batteries of Patriot missiles sent to Turkey to prevent any missile strikes from Syria.
  • 2012 – Chad. 50 U.S. troops have deployed to the African country of Chad to help evacuate U.S. citizens and embassy personnel from the neighboring Central African Republic‘s capital of Bangui in the face of rebel advances toward the city.
  • 2013 – Mali. US forces assisted the French in Operation Serval with air refueling and transport aircraft.
  • 2013 – Somalia. US Air Force planes supported the French in the Bulo Marer hostage rescue attempt. However, they did not use any weapons.
  • 2013 – North Korea crisis
  • 2013 – Syria crisis

Battles with the Native Americans[edit source | editbeta]

Relocation[edit source | editbeta]

Armed insurrections and slave revolts[edit source | editbeta]

See also: Slave rebellion, Tax revolt

Where are your lifeboats? Google’s Knol, Squidoo, Wikipedia…

Frankly, I am not that interested in Google’s Knol, Squidoo, Wikipedia…I still mostly use my hard copy dictionaries, thesaurus…Or maybe I am missing a whole lot on these facilities?

And Seth Godin posted “When Google comes calling…”, something to the effect that Squidoo focused on individuals and their passions…and delighting user base…and focusing on internal reports…

I don’t mind sharing a good post that smacks revenge on a 800-pound gorilla (Google’s Knol). Seth wrote:

“In June of 2008, Google launched Knol, a monetize Wikipedia, a Squidoo killer as some people saw it. Not the same as what we were doing at Squidoo, not focused on individuals and their passions, but close enough for discomfort.  Our tiny team was in the headlights of a very big company.

One of the first things investors and advisors will say to someone launching a business, particularly a tech one, is, “sure, but what happens if Google/AT&T/Starbucks/Apple decides to get into your business? You’ll be dead.”

While the intent behind this question is generous, it’s usually wrong. That’s because it misses several fundamental elements of what allows a business to thrive, and how entrepreneurs often have a significant advantage over incumbents when they are building something new.

  • It’s almost never about technology. Many companies that are built on tech believe that it’s the tech that enabled them to succeed. This is almost never true (I know, I’m biased). It’s marketing and stories and connection and tribes and commitment and structure that build businesses. The technology is essential, but it’s not nearly enough.
  • First movers can become obsessed with external customers, not internal reports. We paid attention to Knol for about a week (who wouldn’t?) but then ignored it. It wasn’t relevant to our users, so it wasn’t relevant to us. Our little team focused 100% of its energy on delighting our user base (which, while small at the time, was far bigger than Knol’s). If you can give your users an experience that they want to tell their friends about, you’ll grow.
  • There are no lifeboats. One of the reasons Google was so extraordinarily successful with search was that it was all they had. Sink or swim, those were the only options. Google’s competitors a decade ago had tons of things to work on, plenty of sources of traffic and revenue. Google had only one. At the beginning, the founding team at Google came to work every day focused on just one problem. We were in the same position in 2008, and that’s the case of most small companies facing down a big competitor. We focused because we had no plan B.

The most disruptive thing about the entrant of a huge player is the impact it has on partners. It’s easy to get skittish when the 800 pound gorilla arrives. I’m not sure there’s an obvious way to deal with this problem… we resigned ourselves to doing whatever we had to on our own, figuring the partners would figure it out eventually.

This week, three years after the launch, Google threw in the towel and closed down Knol. Our pageviews and our user base have grown by many multiples since 2008. I’m not sure you should wish for (or even plan for) a showdown with the big player, but it should give you solace to know that a focus on your tribe of customers gives you a fighting chance.” End of post.

The real problem with 800-pound gorilla is that they can easily buy you out, and then kill your hard labor at will.  What would all these hard working rank and file do, after investing so many hours and energy on building a company that they felt belong to them?  Could they elect a leader among them to create another company with fresh vision?

Why Search machines have to volunteer the Jewishness of any person?

Do you feel that search engines (Google, Wikipedia…) have to volunteer the religious affiliation of a personality, if not asked?

Most probably, the search machines would volunteer to tell you that a particular personality is Jewish, or his father was Jewish, or his grand-mother was Jewish, or he helped or persecuted Jews… or the personality is a Moslem “person-non-grata”, or antisemitic…

You don’t read of the religion of many personalities who are not Jews, do you?

Why would encyclopedic sources have to be specific on religious denomination?  Is that so important and valuable to disseminating irrelevant pieces of “intelligence”?

Actually, it appears that powerful Jewish organizations are insisting on exhibiting their Jewishness on search engines, otherwise, they would be activating big campaigns for removing religious affiliation from encyclopedic sources.

Most probably, it is the Zionist Jewish organizations that are harassing most non Zionist Jews in order to extend forceful legitimacy to their “Zionist Nation” called Israel:  The Zionist movement has consistently cornered and cut the ways and bridges to any reluctant Jews around the world who feel like objecting and criticizing the apartheid and racist policies in Israel.

Why is it so important to be a Jew and be recognized as being a Jew?  Do you care what is your religion?

Do you believe that it is your religious denomination that made your success or was the main catalyst for your achievements?

Why Zionists persist on exposing Jews to further pogroms by alienating the majority of citizens in developing States?  What is so hot about clinging to an absurd myth of “chosen people”?

Note:  You may read my post https://adonis49.wordpress.com/2011/03/02/israel-has-to-ward-off-causes-for-another-holocaust/

Free and Zero are unbeatable lures; (September 14, 2009)

You have this experiment. A group is offered a choice (they won’t be paying): an expensive Lindt truffle chocolate for 15 cents and a Hershey for one cent.  A significant majority of the group was willing to pay 15 cents.  In the next experiment, the prices were altered: the piece of Lindt is priced 14 cents and the Hershey is free; the price difference is the same in both trials. Almost all the group could not skip the attraction of the free Hershey.

My hypothesis is that the reverse must be true for the “haut de game” or the most expensive items.  A group of wealthy individuals who knows quality is offered the choice between two expensive items of exactly the same quality and appearance; one item is priced $900,000 and the other $800,000.  My contention is a significant majority would select the less expensive item in this trial. Now the prices are changed from $900,000 to $1,000,000; exactly the same price difference.  I am pretty confident that a significant majority would opt for the one million dollar item, simply for the additional zero; an all rounded number that may stun acquaintances.

Now and then you read challenging or controversial best-seller works such as “The tipping point” by Malcolm Gladwell (see my series of reviews), “Earth is flat” by Thomas Friedman, or “The long tail” by Chris Anderson that sort out “leaders of opinion”.  Chris Anderson (longtail.com) published another challenging book “Free! Enter the free of charge economy”.

So far, there are many aspects in the economy that digital technology made free of charge from free programs, free loading of digital books and music, free access to many internet networks, to publishing webs, to information webs such as Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, Flickr, Trillian, Tripod, Twitter, and so on.

The musician Derek Webb permitted free loading of his album in return of the loader’s electronic address.  Webb gathered 80,000 mailing addresses which packed his concert tour. The one who can afford to pay is willing to pay if he wants the product. This one was willing to pay far expensive concert ticket than listening to a lasting album, simply because this free loading enabled him to appreciate the album and return the gesture.

Yes, someone has to pay. The basic model is the “freemium”. A standard version is disseminated for free so that those professionals who can afford to pay for the “premium” version cover the expenses and generate the profit. This model is adopted by the photos site Flickr, the instantaneous messages plate-form Trillian, and the loading of iPhone applications AppStore.  The McKinsey Journal is applying the same economic model for business investment; only the professionals would purchase expensive targeted advice. This economic model is working because digital technology has reduced the basic cost for standard versions.

Before WWI, the economic principle was “Demands carry the economy”.  This is exactly what “free of charge” trend is emulating: you buy what you urgently need after testing and loving the product. Basically, it means “We make profit from those who can afford the product”. The previous principle was upturned in the next century; it stated: “Offers drive the economy” which means “We produce and then we find ways to encourage consumers to purchase.  We entice the consumers by promotional gimmicks, by much lower prices, by creating new trends of standards of living, and by lavishing plenty of credits.”

Fundamentally, “Offers drive the economy” means: “We make profit of the pennies from the million of customers.” It worked for a while, until what is being produced is getting too expensive, of lower quality, and basically not that essential in tight financial downturns.

How about educating the consumers of what is essential for resuming a decent life without the faked propaganda of what constitute a “high standard of living”?

They say “Free and zeroes are sources of irrational excitation”.  I beg to differ. The excitation is not irrational at all.  Only the most boring individuals are not attracted by zero and free of charge.


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

September 2020
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