Adonis Diaries

Posts Tagged ‘Zarathustra

Baku of 1901: Paris of the Orient Gate?

By 1900, Baku (Capital of Azerbaijan on the Black Sea) was the center of oil production and it supplied half the world’s demands.

The Swedish Alfred Nobel (inventor of dynamite) and his brother ran the first oil tanker named “Zarathustra”; a fitting name since Baku was then the main religious city of the Yazd sect that worshiped the sun and fire since antiquity.

Oil was known for thousands of years in this region, and Baku was the religious capital of the Zarathustra sect after Islam invaded Iran in around 650 AC.   And Azerbaijan became the main Islam Chiaa sect region before Iran adopted that sect in the 18th century.  Actually, many Persian monarchs and dynasties were originated from Azeri khans or tribal leaders in Azerbaijan.

For thousands of years, Baku was lighted at night from the burning oil on the surface of the Black Sea.  Burning waves lighted the night and hit the shores.  After kerosene was distilled in the 20th century, using kerosene lamps were common household appliances in Baku, Russia, and the neighboring regions of the Caucasus.

Baku was the richest city in the Caucasus and rivaled New York, London, and Paris in attracting immigrants and investors.

Baku became an Oriental city competing in its modernity with Paris: elegance in residences and fashion were widespread among all ethnic and religious minorities living in the ultimate of capitalist system of “laissez fair” mind of doing business.  It was a typical “frontier” city where millionaires and the poorest classes of oil workers cohabited.

Baku is a terrible windy city all year round and its soil is muddy black, soaked with oil; but wealth overcomes many climatic disadvantages.

In 1905, widespread revolts swept all over Russia to the borders with Korea.  Everyday, hundreds of politicians and civil servants were assassinated and pogroms were common.

Tsar Nicolas II decided on giving war to Japan in order to appease the revolts.  The Tsar imagined that a quick victory over “these tiny monkeys with short tails” will galvanize the Russian citizens into patriotic zeal.  Russia was quickly defeated; the entire Russian Pacific Navy sunk and hundreds of thousand of Russian soldiers were annihilated by Japanese machine guns in Mongolia.

The Russian revolts intensified.  The only remaining Russian Navy in the Black Sea was overrun my sailors and their officers slaughtered (the Potemkin debacle).  Tsar Nicolas promised a Constitution.  The Cossack cavalry understood Constitution to mean total freedom of doing what they pleased.  Hundreds of pogroms were daily occurrences in Belorussia and Ukraine (formerly belonging to the Catholic Polish Kingdom before 1772.)

The pogroms reached Baku.

The first minority victims were the Armenians who were well established and lived comfortably out of commerce and lending money.  For days, thousands of Armenians were massacred before the Cossacks managed to restore a semblance of security.

Between 1905 and 1917, Baku was kidnapped by a multitude of revolutionary groups that robbed banks, and asked for ransoms.  Joseph Stalin, under the code name of Koba and who was 28 years old, was leading the Bolshevik groups that asked ransoms in order to provide protection for minority ethnic groups.

The Communist Revolution of 1917 ruined Baku in 1920 as a prosperous city; mass transfers of population and assassinations were systematically applied.

Note:  Topic extracted from “The Orientalist” by Tom Reiss

Superman: Consolation mechanism; (Jan. 19, 2010)

Gramsci stated: “We may confirm that much of Nietzsche superman concept originated not from Zarathustra, but from the hero of Alexander Dumas’s Count of Monte Cristo.  Superman replaces or enhances the imagination of little people: a real waking up dream.  Imagination is thus dependent on social inferiority complex that determines in our lengthy dreams ideas of vengeance, punishment of the guilty for inflicted harms done to us”

Many superman heroes preceded the Count of Monte Cristo; there are Athos in “The three musketeers”, Joseph Balzamo  and Vaudrin in Balzac novels, and most influential of all maybe Rodolphe de Gerolstein by Eugene Sue in “The mysteries of Paris”, which was first published as a serial novel.

All these heroes were well-off financially, they had received extensive educations, they had power to exercise and influence people.  All these supermen had no qualm exerting extreme vengeance and extricate justice outside the laws of the land; their law is founded in super moral world that they believed applied to all mankind.

Superman has this knack to be transformed from God the father to an ordinary worker, or to an ordinary citizen

Serial novels that dug up the miseries of little people and recounted their daily hardship affected and encouraged people to read and to ask other to read to them about stories they associated with their experiences.

Successful serial novels have characteristic attributes;

1.  Select an everyday reality that is not sufficiently considered and where tensions were not resolved.

2. Posit an element of resolution that contrasts with the previous reality; this draft resolution must be simple and naive to impress with its quick results; the result must thus console immediately the little people.  Otherwise, a fantastic resolution can be as expediting and efficacious since it works without going through limiting mediation of concrete events.

3. The story in serial novel is a succession of repeated cycles of tension-relaxation. Thus, it should not obey the classical structure of accumulating tensions up to the last chapter for tensions to be released.

Repetition of describing miseries in the real world has the benefit of attracting attention and permitting focus on a particular misery that coincides closest to your condition. Repetition of miseries is meant to exasperate the sensibility of little people. Surprises have to be many and varied. Redundancy is an excellent technique is serial novels: the reader has to identify with the initial characters (reality) and the resolution characters; it is kind of becoming totally familiar with repeated surprises.

Sudden revolts were never initiated by high-caliber critical thinkers: they were the results of long period of gestation by little people reading about the varied miseries and possibility of quick revenge.

Little people comprehended that the characters in the serial novel never changed even if they experienced some surprised transformations by an unexpected benevolent superman: the good character remains good and the bad character reverted after transformation.

In all the story, events and resolutions are within the social structure of classes and thus, society never changes by all these surprised transformation. It is this realization that infuriates little people in the long run even if they don’t feel the energy or determination to change: they want quick sort of change even for a brief moment.

Who do you think are this century Supermen? 

They are the multi-billionaires who institute their personal “foundations” to work globally outside the premises of the United Nations or international criteria for priorities.  They are the lone crusaders, working outside the laws of the land, coming to aid the disinherited with infusion of money.

The worst Supermen are those individual evangelists who set up their own “religion” and move to Africa to preach the Superman Syndrome of soon coming miracles “what we saw (grains) will be rewarded hundred folds“….

The responsibility of failure is entirely set on the shoulders of the poor, and miseries are never politically motivated.  Soon, the masses will revolt; the trick is that the US evangelists will receive advance warning of imminent troubles by the foreign State intelligence security.  It is the naïve congregation members who will suffer collateral damages as victims of hanging to their “grain of hope“. 

 


Nietzsche’s “Thus spoken Zarathustra” (February 20, 2009)

Zarathoustra “The one who owns old camels” (a tradition in antiquity to tone down the status of famous personalities in order to avoid jealousy and the cursed eyes) is considered the reformist Prophet (7th century BC) of the Ahura Mazda religion in antique Persian Empires.This Empire extended from Turkey to the Indus River (Pakistan).

Nietzsche wrongly adopted the meaning of the Greek name of Zoroaster “The Star of Gold“.  The God Ahura Mazda (The Lord or the Wise Spirit) re-organized the Universe in order to lock in his arch enemy Angra Manyu (The agent of evil thinking) in a time capsule. Thus, people in the universe have to deal with the “Devil of lies, confusion, errors, and death” before they are freed out of the time constraint

In the antiquity, Ahura Mazda represented the day, and the Sun was the symbol of divinity, and fire was the medium through which Ahura Mazda listened to prayers and spoke. 

There were countless sub-divinity representing values of Ahura Mazda and many personalized divinities like Mithra (God of justice represented by the Sun) and Anahita (Goddess of the water), and the God of wind, destiny, and so on.  The forces of life and good will ultimately vanquish the forces of evil and death.

So far, there are no historic proofs, archeological or epigraphic discoveries for indices that Zarathustra, Abraham, Moses, or Lao Tseu did exist except in oral traditions. 

It appears that the concepts of angels, the Judgment of the dead, the Holy Ghost are interpreted from the Zoroastrian religious tradition.  The history of humanity is enclosed in three time periods of 3,000 years each:

The first period witnesses the encapsulation of Angra Manyu; the second period witnesses the awakening of Angra Manyu and the terrible confusion and instauration of death; the third and last period experiences the last struggles between the forces of evil and good.  The number 3 in all religions of the antiquity is a divine number, and corpses were laid by three in the tombs.  The number thousand should not be taken literally because it refers to a huge number. 

Thus, when Zarathustra was born he knew that he is living in the last period and that he will not die and would return to Ahura Mazda.  The disciples of Zarathustra claim that their Prophet learned to be in communication with Ahura Mazda.

The Greek philosophers were fascinated with the teachings of Zarathustra and they emulated many concepts of the Ahura Mazda religion for the good life, beauty, the rejection of ascetic life and celibacy, and devotion to heavy drinking. Soldiers would go to combat wearing all their jewelries. The Persian King would revisit his decisions taken when fasting, and would verify his previous decision after he is literally drunk.

Many Mazdi followers fled persecutions in south east Iran in the provinces of Yazd and Kerman in the 10th century and immigrated to India and Bombay. The French explorer Anquetil-Duperron traveled to India in 1755 and learned Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, and Farsi in order to investigate the religion and traditions of the Mazdi followers who were established in the region of Surat (northern region of Pakistan and bordering Afghanistan). 

Anquetil-Duperron published three vast volumes titled “Zend Avesta, the work of Zoroaster“.  There are large communities of Mazdi in California and India. The Bahai followers adopt the Mazdi beliefs in addition to Islam and variant of Judaism.

Even current Iran, the Islamist Republic, celebrates the Mazdi festivities of New Year (Nawrouz) and the Red Wednesday, a festival of fire and pleasure.

In the summer of 1881, Nietzsche was sitting by the lake of Sils-Maria in Switzerland; it is located 6,000 feet above sea level and “far from things human”.  He said:

“I was waiting for nothing.  Beyond the good or evil, I was enjoying of light, shadows, the lake, the noontime, and of no purpose. Then, friend, suddenly one became two and Zarathustra walked by”  That is when the decision to write “Thus spoken Zarathustra” had taken flesh and for over two years, Nietzsche would resume his manuscript where ever he is located.

 Since the Zoroastrian religion professed the duality between good and evil and thus, according to Nietzsche, Zoroaster preached an “extra-morale” doctrine beyond the good and evil and proselytized the eternal return of man, a sort of an extension to the doctrine represented by Dionysus.  The Greek God Dionysus had the power to change and to be transformed into another player; this power is mainly of lightness, perpetual movement, and erotic.

Nietzsche would sign a few of his articles Dionysus. Thus, Nietzsche wrote: “Only the one who can change is related to me.  This life, as you are living it now and had so far lived, you will have to re-live it many other times. You will have to learn to be kind to yourself and toward life. You have got to mark the future of the being with the highest will for power“.

While the German philologists claimed that Zoroaster invented morality, Nietzsche would argue that Zoroaster preached the contrary to morality and that he was the representative of thinker on life. 

Nietzsche contrasted Zoroaster to Socrates whom he judged to cling to a moral set.  (I think Socrates is being evaluated according to what Plato said about Socrates’ teaching.  It is Plato that ascribed to set of moral standards and of eugenics practices for a new Republic.  Socrates wanted to dialogue with people in power to discriminate those who are free thinkers and reflect on prevalent moral standards from those who abide by religious dogmas and current paradigms)


adonis49

adonis49

adonis49

July 2020
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